Arnolfini timeline

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       Draft text for Self Portrait: Arnolfini


1831 Bristol Riots, Queen Square. Reform Bill rejected by House of Lords, riots ensued, hundreds killed

The House of Lords rejects the Representation of the People Act (commonly known as the Reform Bill), and riots ensue. The Act intends to extend male suffrage in Parliament to many cities that have expanded during the Industrial Revolution. Bristol had been represented since 1295, however in 1830 only 6,000 of the 104,000 population are eligible to vote. Provoked by Sir Charles Wetherell, a local magistrate and strong opponent of the Bill, riots unfold over three days. The Mansion House in Queen Square is looted, the Bishop's Palace set on fire, and the prison destroyed.

Dragoon guards violently suppress the riot by charging through Queen Square with drawn swords. Charles Greville, clerk of the Privy Council, writes in his journal, November 11th: "Some hundreds were killed or severely wounded by the sabre. One body of dragoons pursued a rabble of colliers into the country, and covered the fields and roads with the bodies of wounded wretches, making a severe example of them."

1832. Discovery of electro-magnetic current, Michael Faraday

Generally considered the greatest experimental physicists, Michael Faraday (1791 1867) discovers electromagnetic induction when he wraps two insulated coils of wire around an iron ring, and finds that, upon passing a current through one coil, a momentary current is induced in the other. Faraday uses this principle to construct electromagnetic rotary devices which suggest the possibility of electric motors, generators and transformers. In fact, its through his research that electricity is viable for use in technologies, and that we understand electromagnetic force, which exists everywhere and in all things, as one of the four fundamental components of our universe.

1832. Acraman, merchants and ironmongers build warehouse at Narrow Quay

In 1830-31 the Acramans acquire the leases of three houses at the south end of Prince Street, Bristol. Bordered on two sides by the dock walls of Bristol's Floating Harbour, where the River Frome once flowed into the River Avon, the site is at the heart of the City's international trading quarter.

The Acramans pull the houses down, building a new property described as warehouses, lofts, cellars and compting houses. There is a rumour that several sledgehammers were 'borrowed' from Acraman's main ironworks on Guinea Street to break down the prison doors during the riots of 1831.

1835. Narrow Quay warehouse extended to store tea and dry goods

The company of Acraman Bush Castle & Co. is formed specifically to take advantage of the removal, in 1833, of the East India Companys tea monopoly. Beautifully designed by Richard Shackleton Pope in local pennant stone, the warehouse is extended to accommodate their expected future trade. Its monumental construction, later described by Andrew Foyle, as "the forefather of the Bristol Byzantine style" will attract the attention of architectural critic and historian Nikolaus Pevsner, in his Buildings of England series.
Pevsner, Nicholas (1958) North Somerset and Bristol: Buildings of England, Yale University Press (New edition edition 2001)

1836. Government funds Central School of Design

The Industrial Revolution established Britain as a world leader in manufacturing and enabled British products to generate vast internal and international markets. These markets were threatened as European, Indian and American goods began to compete alongside British products with increasing success, a success often attributed to their 'design' superiority.

Feeling their livelihoods threatened, British manufacturers lobby Parliament, and in 1835 a Select Committee is set in motion to, "Enquire into the best means of extending a knowledge of the Arts and the principles of Design among the people, especially the manufacturing population of the country."

The Committee concludes that successful International competitors are funding public Design Education, while Britain is not, recommending that Parliament invest 1,500 to establish a Government School of Design in London, with further annual funding to establish a network of provincial Schools in the major industrial centres of the country. Art & Design Education is, therefore, the oldest form of publicly funded education in Britain.

Burton, Anthony (1999) Vision and Accident: The Story of the Victoria and Albert Museum London, V&A Publications

1836. Bristol Zoo

The Bristol, Clifton and West of England Zoological Society open Bristol Zoo, only the fifth zoo in the world, and the first outside a capital city.

1839. First patented photographic process, Louis Daguerre

On January 7, members of the French Acadmie des Sciences are introduced to an invention that would change forever the nature of visual representation. They see a remarkably detailed, one-of-a-kind image on a highly polished, silver-plated sheet of copper. Its been sensitized with iodine vapors, exposed in a large box camera, developed in mercury fumes, and stabilized (or fixed) with salt water. The astonishingly precise pictures, the photographs, are the work of Louis-Jacques-Mand Daguerre (17871851), a Romantic painter and printmaker. Although Daguerre is required to reveal, demonstrate, and publish detailed instructions of the process, he retains patents on the equipment necessary to practice this new art.

1841. London to Bristol railway

The first major British railway, the Great Western Railway (GWR), runs between Temple Meads in Bristol and London Paddington. Facing stiff competition from Liverpool, Bristol's merchants are keen to protect Bristol's status as the dominant port of trade with America. Following an Act of Parliament in 1835 and the appointment of Isambard Kingdom Brunel as the railway's engineer, the railway is constructed in six years, terminating at Bristol's beautiful Tudoresque station, the largest single span building in the world.

1843. The SS Great Britain launched

Also designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the steam ship Great Britain is launched in Bristol for the Great Western Steamship Company's transatlantic service. The Great Britain, together with the Great Western Railway, provides an integrated transport system between London and New York.

While ships had previously been built of iron, or equipped with screw propellers, the Great Britain is the first to combine these features in a large ocean-going vessel, and is by far the largest vessel afloat. With her massive 1000 horsepower engine, she easily breaks all previous speed records on her maiden voyage across the Atlantic.

1844. Bank Charter Act establishes a gold standard against which UK bank notes are issued

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. Throughout the 1820s different bank notes, secured against different units of account, were issued by local and regional banks throughout the United Kingdom. This practice was restricted in 1826 when the Bank of England was allowed to set up regional branches, and brought to a close in 1833 when Bank of England notes were made legal tender. The Bank Charter Act establishes Bank of England notes, fully backed by gold, as the national legal standard; British finance is now a coherent system.

1846. Warehouse renamed Bush House

The Acramans trading empire is bankrupt, the business broken-up, and the Narrow Quay warehouse bought by bonded warehouse keepers George and James Bush. It is renamed Bush House.

1846. Free Trade formalised

The various Corn Laws between 1815 and 1846 were essentially import tariffs designed to protect cereal crop prices in the United Kingdom against competition from less expensive foreign imports. Aristocratic landowners benefited from high prices; middle-class manufacturers and working-class labour did not: cheap bread meant lower wages and increased profits. There is a struggle in Parliament to see who would prevail. On the third reading of the Bill of Repeal (Importation Act 1846) Members of Parliament vote by a majority of 98 to abolish the Corn Laws. This landmark abolition is a significant step towards the ideology of managed Free Trade between nations, and signals the start of the exponential growth of a middle class.

1847. Fry's chocolate factory, Union Street

The Bristol factory of J. S. Fry & Sons produce the first solid chocolate bar for mass consumption; chocolat delicieux a manger.


1851. Morse Telegraph patented, Samuel Morse

The Telegraph is an system by which messages can be sent over long distances, through a wire, using alternating signals. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791 1872) with co-inventor Alfred Vail, patent a simple dot-dash code and devices for encoding, transmitting, receiving and decoding human readable text. Morse's code and single-wire telegraph system (running along railway lines to minimise property-rights negotiations) network 32,000 kilometres of the United States.

1851 Great Exhibition

"A great people will invite all civilized nation to a festival, to bring into comparison the works of human skill. the organisation of this giant enterprise; the inclusion of every type of process of manufacture; the successful appeal to all classes of the population; the stimulation of trade, will commend this Exhibition to our ancestors, as it now does to ourselves." Henry Cole

The astonishing Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations is a spectacular celebration of modern industrial technology, art, design and manufacturing. Opened by Queen Victoria on 1st May, six million people, a third of the entire population of Britain visit before it closed six months later. The influential Henry Cole is a driving force at the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, and they are instrumental in organising the exhibition of some one hundred thousand objects, in Joseph Paxton's pre-fabricated cast iron and glass Crystal Palace. It is atemporary building so vast it encloses mature elm trees. (Isambard Kingdom Brunel will use the same technology to build Paddington Station three years later.)

In a performance of the Free Trade ideal, fourteen thousand exhibitors, from all around the world competitively display their goods. Inside, the air resounds with the noise of machinery and music as manufacturers display their processes; producing and exhibiting the latest weapons, ceramics, clocks, glassware, jewelry, leatherwork, lighting, metalwork, sculpture, textiles, wallpaper, furniture and much else besides.

The Great Exhibition merges art, industry and commerce in a previously unimagined space of exhibition and leisure, as the traditional distinctions between things dissolve in entertainment. During the following century a tsunami of spectacular Exhibitions encircle the globe, and the Great Exhibition is the template for every museum, Department Store, shopping mall and Trade Fair thereafter. As historian Donald Preziosi suggests We have never left the Great Exhibition.

Preziosi, Donald (2001) Brain of the Earths Body University of Minnesoa Press
Quoted in (1950) The Great Exhibition of 1851, a Commemorative Album London, Victoria and Albert Museum

1857. South Kensington Museum opens in London with artifacts bought from the Great Exhibition. Museum renamed Victoria and Albert Museum 1899

As one of the prime movers behind the Great Exhibition, and inspired by the 1935 Select Committee report, Henry Cole is intent on using some of the 186,000 Great Exhibition profit to improve design and art appreciation. Land is purchased in South Kensington in London and many exhibits from the Great Exhibition are acquired to form the nucleus of a collection, as Cole (who is also Head of the School of Design) orchestrates a magnificent new museum.

The museum is imagined as an 'educational' institution, part of a innovative system of popular education. Its initially organised into departments of Art, Machinery, and Materials-cum-manufactory, although a section on 'Domestic and Sanitary Economy' is soon added exhibiting tools, handicrafts, artifacts for instruction and recreation, and building materials. The new museum absorbs the collection of the Architectural Museum, of plans, drawings, models and plaster casts, and finally the collection of the Sculptors Institute; consisting of plaster casts of exemplary contemporary and historic artworks.

Officially opened by Queen Victoria on 22 June, Cole is the first director and introduces late night openings, "to ascertain practically what hours are most convenient to the working classes"

The first Keeper of Fine Art Collection George Wallis, engineers the transfer of The School of Design (founded in 1837) from Somerset House to the museum, which will soon become the Royal College of Art.

Burton, Anthony (1999) Vision and Accident: The Story of the Victoria and Albert Museum London, V&A Publications

1853. Bristol School of Practical Art opens

Following the process initiated by the 1835 Select Committee to encourage and nurture art and design education, The Bristol School of Practical Art opens at the Academy for the Promotion of Fine Arts on Queen's Road. It later becomes the Royal West of England Academy.

1858. Lehman Bros cotton bank founded, USA

In 1844, 23-year-old Henry Lehman, son of a cattle merchant, emigrated to the United States from Rimpar, Bavaria. He opens a dry-goods store and in 1850, following the arrival of his two brothers Emanuel and Mayer, Lehman Brothers is founded.

During the 1850s, cotton is one of the most important crops in the United States. Utilising cotton's high market value the brothers begin to accept raw cotton as payment for merchandise, and to extend cash loans to farmers. Within a few years cotton trading and banking become the most significant part of their business. In 1858, New York City is the centre of cotton trading and Lehman Brothers open their first bank branch in Manhattan, at 119 Liberty Street.

1846. The Bristol Water Company

In 1841 a collection of prominent Bristol businessmen, the Society of Merchant Venturers, established the Merchant Venturers Water Works. Backed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the group sought to supply water to Clifton and the wealthier parts of Bristol. In 1845 a rival group of prominent local citizens forms, they are concerned that these plans would not provide water for the poorer, more densely-populated areas of the city. The group includes William Budd, a pioneer in sanitation, Francis Fry, chocolatier and philanthropist and George Thomas, a Quaker merchant active in repealing the Corn Laws, and their plan is to bring fresh water from the Mendips. The government weigh up the rival schemes and narrowly come down on the side of the new group, so on 16th July the Bristol Waterworks Company is formally established by an Act of Parliament.

1859. On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin's (1809 1882) publication of his field research and its analysis, changes the world for ever. Darwin's book painstakingly introduces a scientific theory, that all animal and plant populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. Natural selection is a method by which mutations that enhance a species survival or reproduction become, and remain, more common in successive generations. Darwin suggests, "There is a grandeur in this view of life," a life " that from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." His research proves that all the rich diversity of life arises by common descent, from a single ancestral cell, rather than godly creation.
Darwin, Charles (1859). On The Origin of Species

1878. The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post

The rapid rise in the population of Bristol, brought about as a result of the citys prosperous trading activities, contributes to the decision to merge the Bristol Daily Post and Bristol Mercury, creating a new daily newspaper with a circulation of 25,000.

1861. Post Office Savings

The world's first postal savings system is initiated by the British government with the aim of enabling workers "to provide for themselves against adversity and ill-health". It also provides the government with access to new capital to fund debt repayments.

1864. Clifton Suspension Bridge

The Clifton Suspension Bridge is finally opened, five years after the death of its designer and engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

The initial idea for the bridge came from Bristol wine merchant William Vick, who had bequeathed a sum of money in 1754 towards its construction. The competition to find a suitable design was eventually won by Brunel in March 1831, and the bridge's foundation stone laid that June. But, the Bristol riots in October had knocked business confidence within the city and the project, dogged by subsequent contractual and financial difficulties was eventually abandoned. Following Brunel's death in 1859 the Insitution of Civil Engineers begin the process of raising the funds necessary to complete the project as a memorial to the pioneering engineer.

When completed, the bridge spans 214 metres across the gorge, 76 metres above the river Avon. Brunel made precise calculations as to the minimal gauge required to maintain maximum strength between the 4,200 links that make up the bridges chain, the chain itself is recycled from his bridge at Hungerford, which is being demolished.

The bridge is to become a cultural icon, symbolic of the citys history of building bridges between different communities and places, and its chequered history epitomises the clash between innovation and conservatism that characterises much of Bristol.

1865. Experiments on Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel, Germany

After years spent experimenting with inherited characteristics in artificially fertilised pea plants, Gregor Mendel (1822 1884) realises that similar characteristics would invariably reassert themselves across generations. The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. Mendel's work is key to understanding that inheritable 'elements' (he does not use the word 'gene') are consistent with, and are indeed the mechanisms by which, evolution by natural selection proceeds. Our knowledge of genetics begins with Gregor Mendel.

Marantz Henig, Robin (2001) Monk in the Garden: The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics Boston, Houghton Mifflin, Harcourt.

1866. First transatlantic telegraphic cable

Five attempts to lay a communications cable are made over a nine-year period, before lasting connections are finally achieved using Isambard Kingdom Brunel's ship the SS Great Eastern. Queen Victoria dictates the first recorded message "Glory to God in the highest; on earth, peace and good will toward men" and it is sent to Andrew Johnson, president of the USA. He responds with the hope that telegraphic communication will prove "an additional link between the nations whose friendship is founded on their common interest and reciprocal esteem." A special relationship.

1867, Capital, Carl Marx

Karl Marx (1818 1883) publishes his analysis and critique of the systemic accumulation of capital, through a close study of the technologies dominating the political economy of his times. In the two volumes of Capital, Marx accumulates evidence by which the means of societies reproduction are privately owned, and operated for profit, at the expense of equality, liberty and welbeing. This analysis, meticulously assembled through concepts like use, exchange and surplus value, commodity production, alienation, class, the bourgeoisie, etc., lead Marx to suggest that only through a dialectical struggle between classes will society, economics and politics progress. However the point of Capital for Marx, is not merely to analise or interpret the world but to change it. Marx agitates for the working class to assume control of the means of production, to overthrow capitalism with a new system, Socialism.

Marx, Karl (1867) Capital A Critique of Political Economy (Enlish translation 1887)

1871 Paris Commune

Partly inspired by, and an inspiration for Marx, the Paris Commune is the first experiment in governance by a working class during Industrial Capitalism; they briefly govern Paris between March 18 to May 28.

After France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian war, the workers and the lower-middle classes of Paris seize power. Free elections are held and a council elected that declares Paris an independent commune, they also suggest that the rest of France should organise as a confederation of communes. The Commune initiates a radical reorganisation of social relations and public services; principally they turn factories into co-operatives. The Association of Metal Workers, for example, state our economic emancipation . . . can only be obtained through the formation of workers' associations, which alone can transform our position from that of wage earners to that of associates." On May 21st loyal government troops enter the city and engage in seven days of bitter street fighting. The Commune is overthrown and 30,000 Communards slaughtered. The specific conditions in which it forms, its controversial decrees, its experimental organisation and violent end, make the Paris Commune one of the most important political episodes for models of self-organisation.

1871. The Analytical Engine, prototype computer, Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace

The analytical engine weaves algebraic patterns just as the Jaquard loom weaves flowers and leaves. Ada Lovelace

The Analytical Engine is an important incident in the narration of machine assemblies. The design for a general purpose mechanical engine capable of computing numbers was first described by English mathematician Charles Babbage (1791 1871), working with Ada Lovelace (1815 1852). Instructions to the Engine, its programme is via punched cards, an idea borrowed from the Jacquard loom used for weaving complex patterns in textiles. The Engine has a 'store' where numbers and intermediate results are held, and a separate 'mill' where the arithmetic processing is performed. It is capable of various arithmetical functions and has a variety of outputs, including hardcopy printout, punched cards, graph plotting and a bell.

The logical structure of the Analytical Engine - the separation of the memory (the 'store') from the central processor (the 'mill'), and facilities for inputting instruction and outputting data - influences the evolution of all future computational machine assemblies.
Naughton, John (2000) A Brief History of the Future London, Pheonix.

1872. Bristol Library and Museum

Following the merger of the Bristol Institution for the Advancement of Science and Art with the Bristol Library Society in 1871, a new combined library and museum opens at the top of Park Street, next to the army reserve's drill hall, later demolished to incorporate the new City Museum and Art Gallery in 1905.

1873. Colt 45 handgun pioneered interchangeable mass-produced components

The Colt Single Action Army, also known as the Colt 45 is a single action hand-gun with a revolving cylinder holding six bullets. It's designed by Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company who pioneer the development of weapons assembled from interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts are pre-fabricated components that are, for all practical purposes, identical. This introduces a new material phylum of machine made objects, identical components without an apparent original, without a relation of model and copy. Machine-made components are manufactured to fine specifications to ensure the efficient assembly of new weapons and the easy repair of existing weapons, while minimizing both the time and skill of the person doing the assembly, or repair.

The interchangeability of standardised components is crucial to the introduction of continuous-flow serial production, vital elements in modern manufacturing.

1876. Telephone, Alexander G. Bell

Telegraphic message traffic is rapidly expanding, and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, has become "the nervous system of commerce". Companies are scrabbling to find new ways to transfer more data through the same expensive infrastructure.

Eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator, Professor of Vocal Physiology at Boston University, Alexander Graham Bell (1847 1922) is experimenting with recording the mechanics of speech, by using sound waves and electricity. He builds a transmitter consisting of a diaphragm of thin animal skin stretched over an armature of magnetized iron. Fixed to its middle and from which it's free to vibrate is a Faraday derived electromagnetic circuit. This assembly is then attached by a telegraph line to a second membrane-device for use as a receiver. Bell, is in one room with the transmitter, while his assistant Watson listens to the receiver in another. Bell speaks into his instrument, Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you. and Watson answers; spoken word has passed through the telegraph and the telephone is initiated.

1878. High speed camera and sequential images, Eadweard Muybridge

The Governor of California, railway investor, businessman and race-horse owner Leland Stanford, decides to try and settle a popularly-debated question, whether all four of a horse's hooves are off the ground at the same time during a gallop; the so called "unsupported transit". He hires Eadweard J. Muybridge (1830 1904) an English photographer already known for his pioneering work with sequential images. Muybridge, uses a series of large glass plate cameras placed in a line, each triggered by a long thread as the horse gallops past, and captures a stunning series of sequential images. The images are copied onto a disc and viewed, spinning, in a machine called a Zoopractiscope, the seed of motion pictures is sown, and unsupported transit verified.

1881. Population of Bristol; 206,874


1883. Black Arabs FC founded, became Eastville Rovers in 1884, and then Bristol Rovers in 1898

Founded in the Eastville district of Bristol, the original name of the club derives from a conflation of the black shirts worn by the players, and an adjacent rugby club known as the Arabs, who play at Purdown.

1887 Lehman Brothers add Investment Division to Credit and Loan banking

The Lehman Brothers Bank expands into commodities trading, they are one of the founders of the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870, members of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883, and are instrumental in convening the emerging market for railroad bonds in the 1880's. The Brothers grow an an investment division to facilitate corporations and governments in raising capital by underwriting, or acting as agents in the underwriting of securities. They join the New York Stock Exchange and underwrite their first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company.

1888. Kodak Box Camera, popular photographic image making

"You press the button, we do the rest." Kodak

Previously a complicated and exclusive practice, the introduction of the Kodak box camera, the first simple commercially mass produced camera turns photography into an easily accessible and popular art. The initial model has a fixed focus lens, capturing circular images 2 inches in diameter on a roll of film capable of recording 100 exposures. Once the cellulose film is exposed its posted back to the company for processing, they then return the negatives and prints. Kodak's camera and processing system marks the advent of popular photography and the exponential growth of our photographic phylum.

1890. The Panic. Financial turmoil in markets, Barings Bank rescued by 17m bail-out from Bank of England

Barings Bank was founded in 1762 by three brothers, sons of a wool trader from Exeter. Barings gradually diversified from wool trading into many other commodities, eventually providing all the necessary financial services to facilitate the rapid growth of international trade.

Barings are increasingly involved in international securities and have invested heavily in underwriting the railway expansion and debt-bond issues of Argentina. The Argentine economy is in recession, president Miguel Jurez Celman is forced to resign and the country is close to defaulting on its debt repayments. This exposes the vulnerability and indeed recklessness of Barings positions. Lacking sufficient capital reserves to make good on their promises the bank teeters on the brink of collapse, there is panic, and fear of possible contagion. An international consortium assembled by the Bank of England scramble together a 17m a fund to guarantee Barings debts. Without this rescue, the entire private banking system of London would collapse, precipitating an economic catastrophe.

Ziegler, Philip (1988). The Sixth Great Power: Barings 17621929 London: Collins.

1891. The Kinescope, Thomas Edison

An encounter with the work of Eadweard Muybridge appears to have inspired inventor, scientist, and businessman Thomas Edison (1847 1931) to pursue the development of a motion picture system. On February 25, 1888, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device for viewing sequential images from a spinning disk which produces the illusion of motion. In October 1888, Edison filed a preliminary claim, or caveat, with the U.S. Patent Office announcing his plans to create a device that would do "for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear". The proposed motion picture machine, the Kinetoscope assembles a series of innovations and protocols; principally that of conveying a strip of perforated film, bearing sequential images, over a light source through a high-speed shutter. The machine is a big box-like structure, with a binocular viewing device. The first film strip made for the Kinetoscope is Monkeyshines No. 1 which depicts an employee of Edison displaying physical dexterity.
Baldwin, Neil (2001). Edison: Inventing the Century Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1894. Building Societies Act. Government outlaws pyramid mortgage selling

Owned by its members, a mutual organization, or Building Society is a financial institution to help members secure loans, especially mortgages to buy property. Fradulent lending societies, so-called 'promoter' societies emerge, they have small capital reserves, few assets, and so are dependent upon aggressive new mortgage sales and the cash flow they provide to keep the society solvent. Once the flow of fresh mortgages and cash dries up, societies fail and members loose their money, and often their property. The Building Societies Act, closes loopholes and legislates against 'pyramid' selling schemes.

1895. First film, Workers leaving the Factory, Lumiere Bros., France

Workers Leaving Factory is a moving image film made by Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas (1862 1954) and Louis Jean Lumire (1864 1948) that consists of a single 46-second scene in which workers are seen streaming from the Lumire photographic factory in Lyon, France.

The Lumires hold their first public screening at which the film was projected and admission charged - the film is 17 meters long and hand-cranked through a projector- on 28th December, at Salon Indien du Grand Caf in Paris. It's the moment when the apparatus of cinema, its recording and projecting structure, its actor and audience relations are crystallized.
Cook, David (2004). A History of Narrative Film New York: W. W. Norton.

1897. Bristol City FC founded

Bristol South End turned professional and changed its name to Bristol City FC, they are managed by Sam Hollis. Games are played at St. Johns Lane, Bedminster, prior to Citys merger with Bedminster FC and a move to Ashton Gate.

1897 Radio transmission, Guglielmo Marconi

Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi (1874 1937) conducts experiments, building much of his own equipment, to use radio waves to create "wireless telegraphy". This is not a new idea, numerous inventors have been exploring wireless telegraph technologies for over the past 50 years. However, Marconi assembles and improves a number of existing components, and adapts them into a coherent working system.

On 13 May, in a demonstration for the British government, Marconi broadcast the first wireless telegraph communication over open sea, from Wales to Flat Holm Island in the Bristol Channel, a distance of 6 kilometeres, his message reads "Are you ready?".

1897 National Gallery of British Art, soon to become Tate Gallery, London

Nearing the end of his life, Sir Henry Tate a sugar magnate, philanthropist and major collector of Victorian art offers his collection as a gift to the nation. Parliament declines. Tate then offers to fund a gallery to house his collection and to initiate a National Gallery of British Art, providing the government donate a suitable site, and undertake the gallery's administration. After much debate, Tate's offer is accepted. The site chosen is the disused Millbank Penitentiary, a huge prison near the Thames. Its demolished and the three acres allocated to the new gallery.

A new 'palace of art' is constructed. Alongside Tate's collection the Gallery absorbs 109 paintings form the Chantrey Bequest purchases, the Turner Bequest, and soon becomes the repository for the national collection of British painting of all periods. In 1932 the name will change to The Tate Gallery in recognition of Tate's generosity and commitment.

1901. Population of Bristol; 330,000


1901. Imperial Tobacco Company founded by William and Henry Wills

In response to aggressive competition from James Buchanan Duke and his American Tobacco Company, William Henry Wills of W.D. & H.O. Wills of Bristol initiates the amalgamation of thirteen British tobacco and cigarette companies. Lambert & Butler, John Player & Sons and Franklyn Davey & Co. all participate in the merger, under the umbrella organisation The Imperial Tobacco Company. Wills becomes the new Company's first Chairman.

1901. Whitechapel Art Gallery, London

The vicar of St Jude's Whitechapel, London, Canon Samuel Augustus Barnett and his wife Henrietta, organise an art exhibition in their church hall. They believe that art 'would educate people so that they might realise the extent and meaning of the past, the beauty of nature, and the substance of hope'. The exhibition proves astonishingly popular, attracting some 10,000 visitors and this persuades the Barnetts of the need for a permanent exhibition space. When land adjacent to the new Free Library in Whitechapel High Street becomes available Barnett purchases it and commissions Charles Harrison Townsend to produce a distinctive arts and crafts building. The Whitechapel Art Gallery, one of the first publicly-funded galleries for temporary exhibitions in Britain is about to 'bring great art to the people of the East End of London'. Its first exhibition attracts 206,000 local people.

1903 First machine flight, Wright Bros., USA

The Wright brothers, Orville (1871 1948) and Wilbur (1867 1912), are the two American bicycle manufacturers credited with developing the world's first airplane and making the first powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight.

Using thin spruce frames and stretched muslin for surface coverings, their own designed and carved wooden propellers and a purpose-built gasoline engine fabricated in their bicycle shop, the Wright Flyer I, flown by Orville, flew 37 m in 12 seconds, at a speed of only 10.9 km per hour. The historic flight is recorded in an iconic photograph.

1904. Screen actor Cary Grant born

Debonair, handsome, charismatic, and charming. Described as the "most handsome man in the world", star of over seventy films and married five times, he was expelled from Fairfield School in Bristol aged fourteen. Born Archibald Alexander Leach (1904 1986), he becomes Cary Grant in 1931 at the request of Hollywood executives at Paramount Studios who want to mould a new movie star. Grant is Hollywood's quintessential leading man, starring in films such as Bringing Up Baby, The Philadelphia Story, To Catch a Thief and North by Northwest.

1905 Special Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein

[..] henceforth, space by itself, and time by itself, have vanished into the merest shadows and only a kind of blend of the two exists in its own right. Albert Eintein

After Farady, innate attractions and repulsions joined size, shape, position and motion as physically irreducible properties of matter, these properties exist in a flat, homogeneous, isotropic space. This essentially 200 year old. 'Newtonian' understanding of our universe is about to be deformed for ever. The Special Theory of Relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein (1879-1955) demonstrates that time is linked, or related, to matter and space. For example - Space, the room you are sitting in, and Time, the minutes that tick away on your watch, are all part of a single physical entity, the SpaceTime continuum, you cannot move through space without moving through time. The measurement of Space and Time also changes depending on the relative motion of those observerving it, its possible that different observers see the same event occurring at different times and places. Our only constant is the velocity of light, even if the observers are moving toward or away from the source of light. From now on, we inhabit a relatavistic universe, with few fundamental metrics, an essentially 'curved' SpaceTime that allows for the relativity of simultaneity. Einstein receives the Nobel Prize in 1921.

1907. Bakelite, first mass-produced synthetic material, Leo Baekerland

Asked why he entered the field of synthetic resins, a Belgian chemist answered, "to make money", Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863 - 1944) sets out to find a replacement for natural resins used in assembly-line manufacturing by exploring the reactions of phenol, fillers, heat and moulding technologies. He produces a versatile thermosetting hard 'plastic' material, a phenolic that he called Bakelite. Because of its high heat resistance and low electrical conductivity Bakelite becomes synonymous with electrical devices; telephones, clocks, radios, gramophones, toasters and eventually televisions.

Moulded plastic objects were perfect for mass-production and Bakelite goods pour from factories into the emerging domestic, consumer market.

Cummings, Neil (2004) From Things to Flows in The Ecstacy of Things Steidl Verlag Gottingen pp 322 - 327

1908. Model T car, assembly-line production and time and motion discipline, Henry Ford

American industrialist, founder of the Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford (1863 1947) is a man whose name will become the verb, "Fordism". Ford introduces the Model T car, a tough and versatile vehicle produced through standardised components and assembly line mass production, and sold in astonishing volumes. Fordism, coined by theorist Antonio Gramsci designates a specifically 20th century organisational regime. On the production side, a vast bureaucratic organisation administers continuous mechanized production, this is allied to the Scientific Management of time and motion, resulting in deskilled labour, extreme workplace discipline and phenomenal productivity. In turn, increased production demands expanded consumption, which requires higher wages. Hence, the significance of Ford's famous offer of $5 a day to workers who will comply with the alienating, disciplined work conditions at Ford Motors.

Like many wealthy men before him, Ford leaves most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation "to receive and administer funds for scientific, educational and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare".

Lacy, Robert (1986) Ford: the Men and the Machine London, Heinmann

1909. Bristol University

Following generous endowments provided by the Fry (chocolate) and Wills (cigarette) families, and the purchase of the Blind Asylum for use as a site, Bristol University receives its Royal Charter. Henry Overton Wills III is appointed the universitys first chancellor.

The university will come to be dominated by the Wills Memorial Building, with its massive neo-gothic tower designed by Sir George Oatley. Commissioned by Wills sons George and Harry in 1912 in tribute to their father, the tower is topped by an octagonal belfry that houses Great George, Englands sixth largest bell, tolled on the death of each chancellor.

The university motto is 'Vim promovet insitam', [Learning] promotes ones innate power.

1910. The British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, manufactures aircraft at Filton. Becomes Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1920

Founded by Sir George White, chairman of the Bristol Tramway and Carriage Company, the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company begins production of the Bristol Boxkite in a former tramway shed in Filton. A range of beautiful and innovative aircraft will follow including the Bristol Scout, Bristol Fighter, Bristol Bulldog, Bristol Britannia and the Bristol Brabazon, one of the largest airplanes in the world.

1914 - 1918. First World War

World War I is the first major war between industrialized countries. Advanced technologies and mechanised weapons combine with 19th Century military strategies with horrifying results. There are unprecedented casualty levels. More than 70 million military personnel are mobilised, 9 million combatants are killed, 21 million wounded, and an estimated 10 million civilian deaths. The youths of nations are literally used-up as cannon fodder, they are consumed by machines. The long 19th Century obsession with technological and social progress lies abandoned in the bloody trenches.

To manage the war, the British Government expands its influence. New ministries and institutions are created, new taxes levied, new laws enacted, and rationing imposed, all in order to harness societies creative and productive power to pursue the war effort.

1914 UK debt leaps from 1bln 7bln to finance war

To pay for the war effort, Britain cashes in its extensive investments in American railroads and then begins to borrow heavily on Wall Street's financial markets. The National Debt leaps from 25, to 135 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

1917 October Revolution, first socialist state, Russia

Formed and led by Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov - known as Lenin - the Bolsheviks are a revolutionary socialist party, committed to the ideas of Karl Marx.

Following the overthrow of the Tsar earlier in the year, Russia needs a government to manage the country until proper elections can be held. A Provisional Government is installed, which proves very unpopular, and the first Soviet appears in Petrograd. Inspired by the Paris Commune, Soviets are basically self-organised councils, elected by workers, soldiers and sailors. Usually chaotic, rowdy, and disorganised, although they are elected, unlike the Provisional Government.

Lenin becomes convinced that the time is ripe for the Bolsheviks to seize power in the name of the Soviets. On 24 October, units of the Bolshevik Red Guards take control of key buildings, power stations, railway and tram stations in Petrograd. On the night of the 25th October, the Red Guards storm the Winter Palace and arrest the Provisional Government.

Lenin proclaims a new Soviet government of Russia.

1918. The Representation of the People Act, Majority of men enfranchised

Following the horrors of World War I, millions of young soldiers are returning home, but they are not entitled to vote. This poses a dilemma of legitimacy for the Government and the political process; how can they deny the vote to men and women who had fought for freedom, democracy and to preserve the British political system?

As a consequence, all adult males over 21 years old, who are resident householders gain the right to vote. Some married women over 30 are also enfranchised.

1920. League of Nations, precursor of United Nations

After the devastation of World War I, Paris is effectively the centre of a world government as diplomats from 29 allied countries meet to discuss the terms of peace. The diplomats declare Germany defeated and guilty: they weaken its military, partition the country, and require reparations to be paid to the victors. To ensure future peace, 'A League of Nations is formed, whose primary goal, as stated in its Covenant, is to prevent war through collective security, disarmament, and the settlement of international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.

The League has no military power, and so is dependent on international cooperative armed action to enforce its resolutions, rulings, and economic sanctions.

1920. Economic Consequences of the Peace, John Maynard Keynes

One of the major outcomes of the Paris Peace Conference is The Treaty of Versailles. John Maynard Keynes (1883 1946) a British Treasury representative drafting the treaty argues that there should be no punative reparations or that, at worst, German reparations ought to be limited. Continuing the war by economic means will inflict long-term harm on Germany, and as a consequence Britain and its allies. He also suggests that the US Government launch a vast credit programme to help restore Europe to prosperity.

Keynes advocates planned international economic management; his advocacy is ignored and he resigns in frustration. The resulting book, The Economic Consequences of the Peace is a critique and warning; if the victors enforce economic humiliation, then a world financial crisis will ensue, triggering a second world war.

Keynes, John Maynard (1920) The Economic Consequences of the Peace New York. Harcourt, Brace, and Howe.

1921. Whiteladies Picture House, Bristols longest running cinema opens

Over 1,300 people gather on the opening night to watch Mary Pickford in the silent film classic Pollyanna. Designed by James Henry LaTrobe and Thomas Henry Weston, and combining elements of Art Deco and Bristol Byzantine styles, the Whiteladies Picture House is opened by the Duchess of Beaufort on the 29th November.


1922 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). National media distribution

The government licenses Britains six major radio manufacturers, including Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company to merge into one entity, and begin national radio broadcasts. The British Broadcasting Company (BBC), financed by a Post Office licence fee of 10 shillings, and supplemented by royalties on radio sales, first broadcast from London on 14 November.

1922 German hyper-Inflation

The Treaty of Versailles demands 132,000,000,000 (132 billion) gold Marks from Germany in war reparations, an amount in excess of its total gold reserves and foreign exchange holdings. Germany's currency begins to devalue. They have to buy foreign currency to meet the debt, which in turn increases the speed of devaluation. The lower the Mark sinks in international markets, the greater the amount of Marks required to buy the foreign currency demanded by the Treaty. The Government begins to print more Marks...........

A vicious vortex is produced, in which more and more inflation is created with each iteration of the ever accelerating money printing cycle; Hyperinflation.

1923 Tokyo earthquake

The Great Kant earthquake devastates Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, and causes widespread damage throughout the Kant region. It's power and intensity are astonishing: 7.9 on the Richter scale, and a duration of between 4 and 10 minutes in which time between 100,000 and 140,000 people are kelled and the cities devastated.

1924. International Exhibition of New Theatre Techniques, Frederick Kiesler, Vienna

Architect Frederick Kiesler (1890-1965) creates the L+T System, a flexible and independent display structure for presenting objects, images and artifacts. Conceived as an alternative to the rigid constraints of traditional museum displays, the L+T System is composed of freestanding, interconnected vertical and horizontal battens, that support vertical and horizontal rectangular panels. For the Vienna exhibition, some six hundred unframed drawings, posters, marionettes, photographs, designs, and models of avant-garde theatre productions are exhibited. Freestanding structures, some with hinged panels, others cantilevered, produce an interactive, fractured collage-like exhibitionary experience, that Kissler term a 'varied transparency'.

Staniszewski, Mary Anne (2001) The Power of Display A History of Exhibition Installations at the Museum of Modern Art Mass., MIT Press

1925. Florida land bubble bursts

Throughout the early 1920s, Florida in the USA has an image of a tropical paradise, due in part to the publicity paid for by audacious developers. Home owners and then investors begin buying properties, prices rise rapidly, developers develop then speculate, and a land and property bubble ensue. By 1925, buyers and investors are beginning to read negative press. Forbes magazine warns that property prices are based solely upon greed, not upon any actual value. The bubble bursts: entire new cities lie abandoned, failed developments are scattered throughout the state, thousands are bankrupt and even more live in negative equity.

1925. Revolutionary re-organization of the Landesmuseum, Hannover

The young Alexander Dorner (1893 - 1957) is director of the Landesmuseum, Hannover. In this museum, as in all museums the past is displayed in the same monotonous way, salon style and disconnected from the present. Dorner sets about changing the museum, deciding that each epoch should be exhibited simply and clearly within its own specially arranged room, and the routes through the museum narrate a chronological history of art. The last room in this narrative is devoted to the most avant-garde art, and is designed as an Abstract Cabinet by El Lissitzky. The Cabinet proposes an interactive exchange with visitors, and the Modern museum is re-imagined as a dynamic institution, engaged in a productive encounter with the past, through the present.

Staniszewski, Mary Anne (2001) The Power of Display A History of Exhibition Installations at the Museum of Modern Art, MIT Press

1926 General Strike, UK

Not a minute on the day, not a penny off the pay.

The General Strike called by the Trades Union Congress (T.U.C.) is in support of striking coal miners in Wales, the North of England and Scotland. Miners are making a stand against enforced pay-cuts and detrimental working conditions imposed by a coalition of mine owners.

In the largest industrial action ever coordinated, some two million workers are on strike in sympathy across Britain. In London dockers, printers, power station workers, railwaymen, and transport workers aim to bring the Capital to a halt and force the government to intervene on behalf of the miners.

The government has prepared for the strike over the previous nine months, and does whatever it can to keep the country moving, including deploying armed forces and volunteers to maintain basic services. Slowly the strike crumbles and reluctantly the TUC General Council announce their decision to call off the coordinated action. Quickly, the government pass a Trade Disputes Act, outlawing the sympathetic strike action which enables a General Strike.

1927 Live image transmission, John L. Baird

Scottish engineer and inventor John Logie Baird (1888-1946) demonstrates the first televised images in motion, at Selfridge's Department Store in London. Television consists of an assembly of optical, mechanical and electronic psychics technologies to capture, transcribe and display moving images. Baird successfully transmits pictures of the head of a ventriloquist's dummy nicknamed "Stooky Bill" in a 30-line vertically scanned grey-scale image, at five pictures per second. He visits the Daily Express newspaper to promote his invention. The news editor is terrified, saying "For God's sake, get rid of this lunatic. He says he's got a machine for seeing by wireless!".
McArthur, Tom and Waddell, Peter (1986)The Secret Life of John Logie Baird London, Hutchinson.

1928. Womens enfranchisement

The campaign for women's suffrage, begun in 1872, is finally achieved with The Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act ensuring women's electoral equality with men. Women over 21 years old, and paying rates to a local government, are able to participate in the political process.

1928. Penicillin developed, Alexander Fleming

Scottish biologist and pharmacologist, Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 1955) is a specialist in bacteriology, and immunology. Working in his laboratory Fleming notices that an opportunist fungal colony has grown on an agar plate streaked with a bacterium. Astonishingly the fungal colony inhibits the growth of the bacterium. Fleming has devoted much of his career to finding methods for treating wound infections, and immediately recognises the importance of a fungal metabolite that can inhibit disease-inducing bacteria. Once synthesised and mass-produced the fungal antibiotic penicillin is a "wonder drug", saving millions of lives from common infections.

1928. Great Depression. Wall Street Crash I, global financial collapse as credit tightens, banks fail and businesses collapse

The Wall Street Crash is the most devastating financial collapse in history, which initiates the Great Depression throughout industrialized countries.

The crash follows an eight year speculative boom in which hundreds of thousands of Americans are encouraged to invest their savings in the stock market, and many of whom borrow money to buy the stocks. In October, the market finally turns down, and panic selling starts, major banks and investment companies buy stocks in an attempt to shore-up confidence. There is a pause, but the panic returns, trust evaporates, indices nose-dive. The effects of the crash are devastating because every sector of the economy is tied-up in bank loans and share issues. A network of over indebtedness, infectious and reckless speculation, burst asset bubbles, mass debt-defaults and runs on banks slowly unravel. America has also lent huge sums of money to South America and European countries and these loans are suddenly recalled, which has a terrifying impact on the increasingly global economy. European banks collapse, 25% of people are unemployed, industrial production drops by 45 per, house-building falls by 80 per cent, the entire global banking system teeters on the brink as 5,000 banks go out of business. Homlessnes, malnutrition and despair seeps through populations as confidence deserts finance.

Fraser, Steve (2005) Wall Street: A Cultural History Faber, London

1929. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York

The idea for a Museum of Modern Art is developed by three powerful women, Abby Rockefeller, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Sullivan. They want to use their influence and establish an institution devoted exclusively to modern art. Together they rent a space in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, appoint Alfred H. Barr as Director, and open to the public on the 7th November.

Barr is familiar with Dormer's Landesmuseum and Kiesler's exhibitionary experiments as he embarks on his influential organization of the Museum. As well as traditional departments to collect and exhibit Painting, Sculpture, Drawings, and Prints he adds Architecture and Design, and Film and Photography. Under his Directorship the museum establishes the popular conception that modern art is a linear progression of 'isms' with blockbuster exhibitions of iconic modernists like van Gogh, Gauguin, Matisse, Czanne and Picasso.

Kantor, Sybil Gordon (2002) The Intellectual Origins of the Museum of Modern Art The MIT Press, Cambridge

1931 Global Bank of International Settlement, Switzerland

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is founded in order to facilitate money transfers related to German reparations arising out of the Treaty of Versailles. It's an intergovernmental organization of central banks, an uber-bank, to "foster international monetary and financial cooperation" to settle exchanges and loans between nations.

1932 Disney Corporation Technicolour film

Brothers Walt (1901 1966) and Roy Disney start Walt Disney Productions, which quickly establishes itself as a leader in the film animation industry with the introduction of Steamboat Willie featuring Mickey Mouse, and synchronized sound. In 1932, Disney sign an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cell-animation cartoons in color, producing the first feature-length animation Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

Aggressive copyright protection, repetitive assembly-line production processes, tight film distribution contracts and continual expansion establish Disney as Fordist amongst emerging media conglomerates.

1932 First television broadcast, BBC, London

Innovation follows innovation, as the BBC pioneers a range of radio broadcasts across arts, education and news, launching the Empire Service (forerunner of the World Service). With advice from John Logie Baird, the BBC also experiment with TV broadcasts from Alexandra Palace, through a license fee, a new kind of public service is inaugurated, a national media service.

1934. Adolf Hitler, Chancellor, Germany

The Great Depression hit Germany in 1930, unable to agree on counter-measures the coalition government broke-up, it was replaced by a minority cabinet and the Weimar Republic disintegrated. Lacking a majority, policies are implemented by emergency decrees. This rule by decree becomes the norm over a series of unworkable parliaments and paves the way for democratic abuse. Leading German businessmen and bankers (some of whom work at the BIS) financially support the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) and they write letters to the Party Leader, Hindenburg, urging him to appoint Adolf Hitler (1889 1945) to the government. Finally, Hitler becomes Chancellor, and in the elections of March 1933 takes effective control of the party, and more than 50% of the government. He quickly passes the Enabling Act, allowing him to make laws without consulting parliament, and after the death of the president Hindenburg, declares himself the Fuhrer, or supreme ruler.

1936. Z1, binary mechanical calculator, Konrad Zuse, Berlin

German engineer Konrad Zuse (1910 1995) constructs the Z1 calculating engine in his parents' living room in Berlin from almost 30,000 components. The Z1 is a binary mechanical calculator with limited programmability, although unlike most calculating engines, the Z1 performs all of its internal calculations in binary, using a floating-point system based on a semi-logarithmic representation. This makes it possible to calculate quickly with very small and very large numbers, enabling the Z1 to perform a staggeringly wide variety of engineering and scientific applications.

The Z1 is the first freely programmable, binary, floating-point, general-purpose mechanical calculator, and its success installs binary as the de-facto machine standard.

1937 Exhibition of Degenerate Art, Archaeological Museum, Berlin

Adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany, Degenerate Art - entartete Kunst is a term to describe virtually all modern art on the grounds that it is un-German. Joseph Goebbels, the Minister of Propaganda authorises a six-man commission to 'cleanse' and confiscate from museums and art collections throughout Germany, any remaining art deemed modern, degenerate, or subversive. Over 5,000 artworks are seized, and these are presented to the public in an exhibition intended to incite further revulsion against the "perverse Jewish spirit" penetrating culture. In the process the El Lissitzky Abstract Cabinet at the Landesmuseum, Hannover is destroyed.

An exhibition of Degenerate Art, consisting of modernist artworks chaotically hung and accompanied by text labels deriding the artworks subsequently tours several cities in Germany and Austria.

1937 Public Blood Bank, Chicago

Gift economies sit alongside the calculations encouraged by the purely financial, gifts predate money and yet unlike many other forms of exchange, have not been erased by its presence. The first hospital blood bank opened at Cook County Hospital, Chicago, here members of the community are able to give blood. Preserved and stored at the hospital, it is available for transfusion by any person who needs it. The ideal gift is replete with love and generosity like blood, or organ donation you give without interest in an interested return. Now, while money cancels obligations between people, gifts bind people into reciprocal relations of debt and obligation; a community. The Blood Bank initiates a medical commons, its at the heart of the idea of a public good, and public health provision.

Titmuss, Richard, (1970) The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy Reprinted by the New Press, 1997, London, LSE Books

1939. International Surrealist Exhibition, Andre Breton, Marcel Duchamp, Galerie des Beaux-arts, Paris

Marcel Duchamp designs a radical exhibition, where the exhibition itself is conceived as a site-specific, total installation. Featuring over 60 artists from different countries, the exhibition consists of around 300 paintings, various scultptures, collages, photographs and appropriated objects. To enter the galleries visitors pass through a long corridor lined with artist decorated or defiled shop mannequins; the ceiling of the main exhibition space is hung with 1200 coal sacks, beds in each corner are brought from Paris brothels; the floor is covered in sand and autumn leaves; and the rooms so dimly lit visitors need flashlights to navigate the installed artworks.

Against the rational, planned, accumulative and restricted economy of capital, the exhibition proposes a surreal general economy of generosity, waste, loss and transgression.

Bataille, George (trans 1991) The Accursed Share: Volumes II and III New York, Zone Books.

1939 - 45 Second World War

Nazi Germany secretly re-arms. Adolf Hitler makes it perfectly clear that he will break the 'unjust' terms of the Treaty of Versailles, and that he intends to re-unite all Germans into one nation. Three years of mounting international tension - encompassing the Spanish Civil War, the Anschluss (union) of Germany and Austria, and Hitler's occupation of the Sudetenland, culminate on 1 September in the German invasion of Poland. The League of Nations disintegrates, Britain and France declare war two days later and slowly Europe, and eventually other world nations are drawn into confrontation. The Second World War is a global conflict in which the world's nations form two broad opposing military alliances. It's the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. The entire creative, economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities of all the participating nations are in the service of the war effort: a "total war". The distinction between civilian and military resources are erased, death is rationalised and industrialised as 'Fordism' finds its inverse in the Holocaust. In total, somewhere between 50 million to 70 million people are killed.

1940 Committee for the Encouragement Of Music and the Arts (CEMA)

At the end of December 1939, the Pilgrim Trust appoint a Committee for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts. The Pilgrim Trust had been set up as a result of a gift of 2 million by Edward Harkness, an American railway millionaire, to help conserve the heritage of Britain in all its aspects; social, intellectual and material. The Committees objectives are to support the arts through war-time, by offering financial support by distributing an annual sum of 25,000.

1940. Filton and Bristol targeted by German aircraft

As a major port-city with a large aviation industry, led by The Bristol Aeroplane Company in Filton, Bristol is an important target for the German Luftwaffe. On 24th November, during 6 hours of sustained attack, the entire centre of Bristol is blitzed. Many historic buildings, churches and a quarter of the old medieval city, including the main shopping areas around Broadmead, are all destroyed. Much of Park Street and the Triangle, including the City museum, are gutted by incendary bombs. 207 people are killed, 187 seriously injured, over 10,000 homes are damaged and 1,400 made homeless

On 25th September, 168 bombs are dropped in 45 seconds on Filton, 91 people working at the Aeroplane Company's factory, and aother 69 people living in the surrounding area are killed. 900 houses are damaged or destroyed.

1942. Nuclear reaction. First atomic bomb

When the nucleus of atoms collide and split, tremendous ammounts of energy are released. Initiating and controling a sustained nuclear reaction, leads, through positive feedback to a self-propagating chain-reaction of apparently limitless energy. Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) is a nuclear reactor (a pile of uranium and graphite blocks), built under the abandoned West Stand of the sports stadium, at the University of Chicago to experiment with harnessing nuclear chain-reactions to produce energy.

The technology is comandeered as part of the Manhatan Project to development of the first nuclear weapon, and three years later on 6 August an American B-29 aircraft dropped the "Little Boy" bomb on the city of Hiroshima. In a split second 100,000 people ceased to exist. Burns, radiation and related disease will slowly kill another 100,000. Three days later another B-29 dropped a second bomb, "Fat Man" on Nagasaki, killing instantly another 40,000. Soon after, the Japanese people surrender and World War II officially ends.

1944. Bretton Woods Agreement. Guidelines on currency conversion, fixed rate exchange and Free Trade between 44 nations

The Bretton Woods agreement establishes rules for trade and financial relations among the world's major industrial states. While World War II is still raging, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA, and prepare to build a new global economic system.

The delegates, including J.M Keynes representing Britain, institute a system of rules, protocols and institutions - including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - to regulate the financial economy. The main instrument of the Bretton Woods system is an obligation for each country to 'peg' or maintain the exchange rate of its currency in relation to the U.S. dollar, and that the dollar is convertible to a fixed value of gold. The dollar takes over the role that the gold standard had played in the 19th Century: to accelerate managed Free Trade, facilitate the flow of international capital, and increase foreign investment opportunities.

Eichengreen, Barry (2008) Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System, Princeton University Press

1944. International Monetary Fund (IMF). World Bank

Working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty. IMF

The International Monetary Fund overwrites the BIS as the intergovernmental organization to oversee and manage the new global financial system. Principally this is to stabilize exchange rates, facilitate the worlds international payment system, and manage loans to member states with temporary payment imbalances. In return for loans, countries are required to initiate reforms, or structural adjustment programmes. These reforms generally seek to install the managed Free Trade ethos and privatise public assets. The role of the state is limited to tax collection, basic public provision and the enforcement of private ownership contracts.

1945. United Nations. Departments of Law, Security, Economic, Social and Human Rights

An idea for a future United Nations emerged in declarations signed by delegates from the Allied nations towards the end of World War II.

The United Nations, like the IMF is an intergovernmental organization. It works for global peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. The UN is not an independent, homogeneous organization; it is made up of sovereign states, so actions depend on the will of Member States to accept, fund and carry them out. Especially in matters of peace-keeping and international politics, it requires complex, often slow, processes of consensus-building.

The United Nations' has five principal organs;

General Assembly is the main deliberative and legislative chamber, composed of representatives of all the member states,
Secretariat provides the research and administration, necessary to for the UN to function.
Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among all countries.
International Court of Justice, is the primary judicial organ to settle international disputes.
Economic and Social Council promotes international economic and social cooperation and development.

1945 Arts Council of Great Britain, initiated by John Maynard Keynes, funds 46 arts organisations

John Maynard Keynes, who became Chair of the CEMA in 1941, realises he needs to ensure its work in supporting the arts is extended into peacetime.

He proposes a new organisation, The Arts Council. Funding for the arts is to be taken out of the capricious influence of private wealth and made the responsibility of Government, financed by the Treasury through grant-in-aid. Keynes does not want to initiate a new Government Department, instead he advocates a novel 'arm's-length' management principle as a defence against state-supported art, or the political propaganda produced in Nazi Germany. Therefore no minister directs its policies or decides to whom funding should be awarded. Yet, while the Arts Council has freedom to make decisions without intervention, it is accountable for these decisions to its public.

1945 Hypertext and Memex data retrieval, Vannevar Bush, USA

American engineer and science administrator Vannevar Bush (1890 - 1974) publishes an essay, As We May Think that describes a theoretical microfilm-based machine called Memex. A "device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory." He envisions the ability to retrieve several articles or pictures on one screen, with the possibility of writing comments that could be stored and recalled. The ability to create links between related articles, to save these links to share with others he terms hypertext

Zachary, Pascal (1999) Endless frontier: Vannevar Bush, engineer of the American Century Mass., MIT Press.

1946. The Bristol Old Vic opens at the Theatre Royal, King Street

The same year as the University of Bristol founds the first university Drama department in the country, the newly formed Arts Council establish the first regional subsidised theatre company. They send a group of actors from the London Old Vic to set up home at the Theatre Royal in Bristol, the oldest continually operating theatre in England.

1947. Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA), London

A loose group of artists, poets and writers including Roland Penrose, Peter Watson, Herbert Read, Richard Hamilton, and Eduardo Paolozzi start the ICA as a "laboratory" or "playground" for contemporary arts. With no collection, the ICA is a counterpart to the idea of a Museum of Modern Art, its a multi-disciplinary space where artists, writers, musicians, filmmakers and scientists could exhibit, perform, screen and debate ideas outside of disciplinary confines.

The first exhibition, entitled 40 years of Modern Art: A Selection from British Collections is held in the basement of the Academy Cinema in Oxford Street, London.

1947. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a network of 23 countries and Free Trade Organisations

At the centre of the United Nations' Economic and Social Council is its engine, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Negotiated and signed by the majority of the worlds trading nations, these agreements are documents that provide the legal ground-rules for international commerce. They are essentially contracts, binding governments to minimise barriers to international trade and facilitating managed Free Trade policies. Britains prefferable trading contracts with its colonies and former colonies have to be dismantled. Although negotiated and signed by governments, GATT enables multinational companies to access different regional economies, mineral wealth, goods and services and concomitantly those regions become integrated through ribbons of trade into a global market; the the architecture of globalisation.

1947. Le musee imaginaire, Andr Malraux, Paris

Among many other initiatives, the first French first Minister of Cultural Affairs, Andr Malraux (1901 1976), writes Le musee imaginaire, which will be translated as The Museum without Walls. With the invention of color printing Malraux believes a Super-Museum has been created, a collection comprising any artwork that could be photographed and reproduced. He sees the muse imaginaire as part of a logical progression. Firstly the museum tears works of art from their sites of origin, severing all connection to the uses, representations or rituals, for which they are intended. Secondly, through their endless reproduction (in art books, postcards, posters, art history lectures, TV programmes, t-shirts, tea towels, etc), artworks, whether tiny or colossal, whether ancient or modern, are both equalized by the democratizing effects of the camera, and distributed outside of the Museum's control. We live in a permanent exhibition.

Malraux, Andre (1947) Le musee imaginaire Gallimard, Paris.

1948. The Welfare State. Foundation of the National Health Service, followed by education, employment and social security

The William Beveridge Report of 1942, was a manifesto for social reform which identified five "giant evils" in British society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease.

Clement Attlee's 1945 Labour government pledges to eradicate these evils. The government implement a range of radical acts and policies to provide for the well-fare of the people of Britain; security "from the cradle to the grave." In exchange for increasing taxation, The Welfare State is a series of inter-related public services; a commitment to minimum health standards through a National Health Service, education for all through a Comprehensive System, social security for those without work via a National Insurance Act and State Pension. The Welfare State's principles of universal provision and flat rate contributions are widely praised, and copied elsewhere.

Addison, Paul (1985) Now The War Is Over: A Social History of Britain, 1945-1951 London, Cape/BBC Publications

1948. Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener

During World War II, Norbert Wiener (1894 1964) worked on missile technologies, specifically guidance systems. He develops a fascination for systems using feedback, as when a missile adapts its flight pattern in response to changing real-time information fed-back into the guidance system. This "circular causal" relationship he calls cybernetic, and he notices that cybernetic principles are at work in simple assemblies of energy, resources, plants and animals, to super-complex ecologies. It also seems to describe our relationship to oneanother, to technology, and us to it.

Wiener Norbert (1948) Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine MIT Press. Camb. Mass.

1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of mankind is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in recent barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind. It is essential, if people are not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.

Therefore The General Assembly of the United Nations proclaims the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

1949 China declared Communist State

After years of war with Japan, and immediately following World War II, a bitter civil war had broken out in China. On October 1, the Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declares the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Continuous war has ravaged industry, money is valueless, the countryside is experiencing food shortages, and towns have high unemployment. The Communists set out to rebuild Chinese society as a modern nation through a centrally planned economy, a command economy, with government ownership and administration of distributive markets, industry, agriculture and information.

1949. Europe begins nationalisation project

Inspired by Britain, many european nations initiate Welfare Systems and embark on processes of nationalisation. Nationalisation is the process whereby a government takes crucial industries, essential services or vital assets into public ownership, to ensure there is no private exploitation. This enables people to exercise full democratic control over the means whereby, for example water, electricity, transport or healthcare are provided to, and on behalf of, the public at large; a public good. Nationalised services, operate efficiently in the public interest, whereby social benefits are clearly more valuable than financial profit.

The first organisation to be nationalised in Britain is the Bank of England, followed by the dominant telecommunications provider Cable and Wireless Ltd., then the coal industry, railways, and so on.

1950. The Turing Test for Artificial Intelligence, Alan Turing

"We may hope that machines will eventually compete with men in all purely intellectual fields." Alan Turing

The extraordinary life of the British mathematician Alan Turing (19121954) involves contributions to the foundations of modern mathematics, the theoretical assembly of a universal machine, artificial intelligence, and participation in the cryptological war against Nazi Germany.

The famous Turing Test appears in his paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence published in the philosophical journal Mind. The point of the test is this: to suggest that intelligence of a human level could be evinced by a suitably programmed machine. The test imagines a person and a programmed machine in two separate spaces competing to convince an impartial human judge, using textual messages alone, as to which is the human being. If the judge cannot be sure of the difference, the machine assembly, the computer, must be credited with human-like intelligence.
Hodges, Andrew (1992) Alan Turing: the Enigma Random House, London

1950. Korean War

During the peace negotiations at the end of World War II, Korea, a Japanese colony since 1910, was to be occupied north of the 38th parallel by Soviet Russia, and to the south, by a United States military administration.

In the North, Russia and its satellites, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) back a Stalinist regime and create the North Korean Peoples' Army. In the South, America backs an administration that openly declares a will to impose national unity by force. After several years of increasingly bloody frontier incidents the North Korean Peoples' Army sweeps south, overwhelming all opposition. The South retaliate, Britain and the United Nations enter the war, communist China joins the North and a bitter conflict ensues, that, eventually results in a bloody stalemate. This is the first military confrontation between two emerging and opposing ideological blocks, the command economies primarily the USSR and China, and the planned Free Market economies of the United States and its allies. We enter the so called, Cold War.

Hickey, Michael (2000) The Korean War: The West Confronts Communism, 1950-1953 John Murray Publishers Ltd, London

1951. Festival of Britain

Planned in 1947, the Festival of Britain promises to provide a cultural counterpart to the social benefits of the Welfare State, a tonic to the nation' is how Gerald Barry, the Festival Director, describes it. In a centenary echo of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Festival provides an opportunity to showcase the collective achievements of Britain. Although much of London is still war-bombed ruins the main South Bank exhibition site in London celebrates the history, technology, science, and arts as well as various aspects of everyday life. The South Bank Exhibition attracts 8 million visitors, and in an uncanny premonition of theme-parks to come, most complain bitterly about queing.

1954. Racial segregation outlawed, USA

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, is a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, declaring that State laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students are unconstitutional. The Court's unanimous (90) decision states that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal", adding impetus to the Civil Rights movement political campaign, to outlaw racial discrimination.

1954 Money market in Africa, 90 day treasury bills issued in Ghana

The Gold Coast, soon to be Ghana, is the first sub-Saharan African country to develop a constitution, initiate self-government and force independence from Britain. In preparation, Ghana produces the institutions, laws, markets and confidence necessary to issue Treasury Bills to finance national debt.

1951. Bristol population; 422,399


1956. This is Tomorrow, Whitechapel Gallery, London

Architect and writer Theo Crosby, in collaboration with the The Independent Group - a group of theorists, artists and architects who meet regularly at the ICA - curates a seminal exhibition This is Tomorrow. Young and ambitious, they intend to explore a modern way of living using popular media representations, new technologies, and innovative exhibition practices. The 38 participants; artists, designers, theorists and architects form 12 groups and are encouraged to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries. The exhibition marks the first eruption of popular everyday experience, so called pop-art, in Britain.

Yiakoumaki, Nayia and Iwona Blazwick (2010) This is Tomorrow Whitechapel Art Gallery (reprint)

1956. Quantity Theory, Milton Friedman. Theory of deregulated money markets

The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. Milton Friedman

The best way to administer finance, economist Milton Friedman (1912 2006) argues, was not as Keynes had done, to plan and regulate markets, but rather to think of individuals as making rational choices about how to maximise their wealth and resources.

Although much of his work was done on price theory theories that model how prices are determined in individual markets Friedman is synonomous with the Chicago School of economists and monetarism. He proposes to resurrect the quantity theory of money, which suggests that the price of goods and services depends on the money supply. For Friedman the elementary truth is that the Great Depression was produced by government mismanagement, he advocates managed Free Markets, he wants to minimise the role of government, he wants to cut taxes, he argues that many of the services performed by government could be better provided by the private sector, like education, defence, transport, health care, energy supply, in fact, most things.

Friedman, Milton (ed) (1956) Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money University of Chicago Press

1957. Sputnik, earth-orbiting satellite, USSR

History deviates on October 4 when the Soviet Union successfully launch Sputnik I, the worlds first machine to leave our atmosphere. It's an artificial satellite about the size of a beach ball (58 cm. in diameter), that takes about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. The launch ushers in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments, and the start of a space race between the two Cold War superpowers.

1958. Cuba declared Communist State

The 26th of July Movement, is a revolutionary organization planned and led by Fidel Castro. On the 1 January 1959, after years of armed struggle, they overthrow the US-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista's government in Cuba. The Movement transforms into the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, which in turn becomes the Communist Party of Cuba; a socialist satellite in America's backyard.

1958. Taj Mahal, first Indian restaurant in Bristol

Feroze Ahmed, originally from Sunamgonj in the north eastern Assam region of the Indian sub-continent, opens the Taj Mahal in Stokes Croft.

1958. Moderna Museet, Stockholm

Curator Pontus Hultn and a few friends organise a small studio for experimental exhibitions and film screenings in Stockholm, Sweden. The friends expand into a wide cultural network, and in 1956 arrange an exhibition of Pablo Picasso's Guernica and the 93 sketches that accompany the painting in a former drill hall on Skeppsholmen, an island in the centre of the city. This sensational exhibition generates the political impetus to start a Modern Museum of Art, a Moderna Museet. The first Modern Art Museum in Europe opens on the 9th May.

1959. Guggenheim Museum, New York

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a charitable organisation founded in 1937 by American mine owner and philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim. The Foundation expands to become the preeminent private collection of modern and contemporary art. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City, a landmark, spiral structure, commissioned from architect Frank Lloyd Wright and named in Solomon's honor, opens to manage, preserve, and exhibit the collection.

1961. Arnolfini Gallery opens above a bookshop on the Clifton Triangle. Founders: Jeremy Rees, Annabel Lawson and John Orsborn

Jeremy Rees and Annabel Lawson, together with their friend, painter John Orsborn, each invest 100 to purchase the lease on a former joinery workshop above Roberts' Bookshop on 42 Triangle West at the top of Park Street in Bristol. Over 200 people crowd into the gallery on the opening night, March 3rd.

In 1954, aged 16, Rees had been apprenticed to Bristol printers Allen Davies, who paid for him to study at the London School of Printing and Graphic Arts. In London Rees persued his interests in the arts, often visiting theatres, cinemas and galleries, especially the ICA, which became a particular inspiration for Arnolfini. The ICA was not, however, the first multi-disciplinary arts centre Rees was exposed to; Rees' mother had co-founded Bridgwater Arts Centre, Somerset, the first Arts Council funded arts centre in Britain.

Whilst in London, Rees meets Annabel Lawson, a textile artist who studied at the Central School of Art and daughter of Neil Lawson, Q.C.. On Rees' return from National Service in Sierra Leone in 1960, Rees and Lawson begin living together in Bristol, marrying on 16 September. It is also in London that Rees sets up his own publishing imprint, the Jan Arnolfini Press, named after Jan van Eyck's painting The Arnolfini Marriage, hanging in the National Gallery. He liked the name, and although the press would disappear, its name remains.

1961. First man leaves Earths atmosphere, Yuri Gagarin, USSR

We were no longer confined to the boundaries of the earth Yuri Gagarin

Voskok 1 takes off at 6:07am on the 12th of April from the desert steppes of Kazakhstan, and ten minutes later leaves our atmosphere. Vostok 1 separates from its delivery rocket and makes one orbit of the earth in 108 minutes. Yuri Gagarin (1934 1968) is on board, the first man to leave our planet. During re-entry the crafts hatch opens, he ejects and parachutes down to Earth, landing slightly south-west of the town of Engels in Saratov Oblast, Ukraine.

The working class cosmonaut became a Soviet hero, and an international celebrity, travelling the world to promote the Soviet Unions achievements.

1961. Arnolfini is a commercial gallery, selling paintings, prints, crafts and jewellery

Not since Frost and Reed tentatively raised their conservative shutters in 1808 has a gallery of such promise and singleness of purpose emerged from this city. (Derek Balmer, writing in the Western Daily Press the week following Arnolfini's opening.)

Within its simple white-cube space, naturally lit from above, Arnolfini promises a mix of exhibitions by national, international and local artists; many have strong connections to the South West and Cornwall, in particular. The award winning design of Arnolfini's publicity and marketing print is a defining feature of the gallery, as are regular shows of contemporary jewellery and prints. In conjunction with the New Bristol Arts Club and, later, poetry magazine The Resuscitator, a programme of evening jazz, poetry, talks, and play-reading events commences at the gallery. Laurie Lee, John Sharkey, Michael Hamburger, John McGrath and Derek Moore are amongst those who feature.

Arnolfini's mission, as Arnolfini Director Jeremy Rees later writes, is 'to seek out challenging, often controversial and sometimes relatively unknown artists and performers, and to provide a vital showcase for their work.'

1961. Arnolfinis inaugural exhibitions, Joseph Herman and Peter Swan

Coming from a working-class Jewish family in Warsaw, Joseph Herman arrives in Britain at the start of World War II, and settles amongst the mining community in South Wales. The physical labour of workers is central to his figurative pictures, and he is best known for his mural Miners which features in the 'Minerals of the Island Pavilion' at the Festival of Britain in 1951. Included in the Arnolfini show are 18 small pen and wash drawings, in which 'one is made aware of an acute sympathy for the earthy dignity of the labouring man' (The Guardian, 16 March)

Shown alongside Joseph Herman, are nine paintings by the young Bristol-based artist Peter Swan, winner of the William Pratt bequest for painting in his final year at St. Martins School of Art. The paintings, on the theme of Mother and Child, are based on observations of his young family. Swan's work will be exhibited several times at Arnolfini during the first five years.

1961. European Economic Community (EEC). Common market and currency

Created by the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the EEC (also known as the Common Market) is a cooperation between Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany to form a common market of 185 million people. The EEC has two objectives. The first is to transform the conditions of finance, trade and manufacture, this means ending trade restrictions between members, developing common trade tariff towards the rest of the world, and enabling the free movement of labor and capital. The second, is the construction of a more politically unified and administered Europe.

1963. Paul Stephenson leads Bristol bus boycott over racism

Young social worker, Paul Stephenson leads a boycott of the Bristol Omnibus Company, protesting against its refusal to employ Black or Asian drivers or conductors. Inspired by the example of Rosa Parks, who refused to move off a 'whites only' bus seat in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, Stephenson organises a 60 day boycott supported by thousands of Bristolians, forcing the company to revoke its colour bar. The following year Stephenson will achieve national fame refusing to leave a public house until served, resulting in a trial on a charge of failing to leave a licensed premises.

In 2007 Stephenson will be made a Freeman of the City of Bristol, and in 2009 awarded an OBE in recognition 'for his services to equal opportunities and to community relations in Bristol'.

1962. John Furnival wins the Arnolfini Open Painting Competition

First open painting competition judged by the art critic George Butcher, who also makes the selection of entries for this exhibition. Principal prizewinner, John Furnival with 'Monument to Benny Peret'. Additional prizewinners, John Phillips, 'Linking Shape, Black and Mauve', and Darton Watkins, 'Praia da Carroeira'.

1963. ASCII language translates human readable text into machine code

When writing instructions for machines, these instructions need to be translated into a binary code for the machine to process. Many different binary codes are in use, and so it is difficult and time consuming to exchange information and instructions between the various, diverse machine assemblies. And these assemblies are proliferating. A standardization committee convenes, adopts and implements the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). ASCII is the agreed international code for the binary values for all the glyphs of the alphabet, numbers, and other symbols and functions that machines need to process.

1964. Jennie Lee appointed first Arts Minister by Harold Wilson

Political control is a shortcut to boring, stagnant art: there must be freedom to experiment, to make mistakes, to fail, to shock or there can be no new beginnings. It is hard for any government to accept this. Jennie Lee

The Labour Government appoint the first minister specifically for the arts, and although Jennie Lee (1904 1988) works closely with the Arts Council Chairman, Lord Goodman, she is adamant that the founding 'arm's-length' principle for funding will still pertain. Under Lee's tenure, the Arts Council expands a network of core funded client organisations across the country, although they remain, more or less, autonomous.

1964. Global Satellite system

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), is an intergovernmental consortium that will own and manage a constellation of communications satellites. They aim to provide a public infrastructure of international transmission services. Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird), is placed in geostationary orbit over the Atlantic to provide direct and nearly instantaneous contact between Europe and North America.

1966. Arnolfini Gallery Ltd is a charity with Council of Management. Peter and Caroline Barker-Mill join Board. Peter Barker-Mill first Chairman

In 1963 Jeremy and Annabel Rees are introduced to the collectors of contemporary art, Peter and Caroline Barker-Mill, by London gallerist Leslie Waddington. Although living at Wookey Hole, in Somerset, near to Bristol, the Barker-Mill family have been influential and wealthy Hampshire landowners for over 500 years, and Peter and Caroline will become generous benefactors of Arnolfini.

On 28 May, at the home of Jeremy and Annabel in Canynge Square, Arnolfini holds its first Council of Management meeting where Peter Barker-Mill is elected Chairman. Joining them are Bristolians Ronald Alley, Keeper of the Modern Collection at the Tate gallery and Anne Hewer, Chair of Western Ballet Theatre. The other members of the committe are retired plant pathologist Lawrence Ogilvie, Gwen Lawson, Annabel's mother, and Paul Weychan. James Treen, who is also a member of the committee of the Nottingham based artist collective The Midland Group, is elected Company Secretary.

1965. Terry Frost, Mat Rugg, Ceri Richards

This year, solo exhibitions at Arnolfini include Terry Frost, member of the Penwith Society of Artists who was on the teaching staff at the Bath Academy of Art at Corsham, where Jeremy Rees is currently lecturing full-time. And the assemblages by Bridgwater-born member of artist collective The London Group, Matt Rugg (Rugg will go on to be an inspirational tutor at Chelsea College of Art and Design) and Ceri Richards, whose paintings are inspired by his love of music and poetry, cultivated during his Welsh childhood.

Arnolfini is in receipt of Arts Council support for the first time, they act as guarantors against financial loss.

1966. Picture Loan Scheme, enables subscribers to borrow paintings and prints

An excellent and inexpensive way in which to enjoy in your own surroudings, pictures which you have liked suggests the writer Patricia Stokes.

Since its inception, Arnolfini has been operating an innovative Picture Loan Scheme, enabling the public to borrow art works on a basis similar to that of a subscription library. Once the annual subscription charge of 10 shillings has been paid, individuals, businesses and schools can borrow individual works from the gallery's stock of contemporary paintings and prints for a charge of eight shillings.

1966. Five Year retrospective of the Arnolfini. The Golden Mile: Kinetic and Concrete Poetry

Arnolfini organises a retrospective to celebrate its anniversary; includes work by Anthea Alley, Gillian Ayres, Henry Cliffe, Paul Feiler and Bryan Wynter. By way of contrast, subsequent years will also see exhibitions that reveal growing tendencies in abstract art towards op art and minimalism. Robyn Denny, Bridget Riley and Victor Vasarley will be amongst those who have solo shows.

The Golden Mile is organised by 1962 Arnolfini Open Painting competition winner John Furnival and features Benedictine monk and former spy Dom Sylvester Houdard (dsh) from Prinkash Abbey in Gloucestershire. Together they found the experimental Openings Press in 1964. Included in "The Golden Mile" is dsh's celebrated work Frog-Pond-Plop, a translation from the Japanese Haiku of Matsou Basho (1644 - 94) presented in the form of a child's origami fortune-teller. dsh's practice explores the typewriter's machinistic possibilities for generating a kind of visual poetry, the 'typestract'; Furnival's subjects the reductive qualities of Concrete poetry to accumulative 'cut-up' techniques as used by Surrealist artists in the 1920s, and subsequently by Beat writers, including William Burroughs and Allen Gingsberg.

1966. Artist Placement Group (APG). John Latham, Barbara Steveni

John Latham (February 1921 2006) and Barbara Steveni initiate The Artist Placement Group (APG) to place artists, as outsiders, at board-room level into industry, business and government. They intend their social interventions to engage and transformed institutional structures. And, at the same time, it's a means to explore contexts for art outside of traditional gallery exhibitions and museum collections. Artists are placed in the Home Office, the National Coal Board, Scottish Television, British Steel and other major organisations.

1967. First human heart transplant, Christiaan Barnard, South Africa

At the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, Christiaan Neethling Barnard (1922 2001) leads a surgical team to perform the first human-to-human heart transplant. The patient, Louis Washansky is a 54-year-old grocer suffering from diabetes, his donor Denise Darvall, a 25-year-old woman who was fatally injured in a car accident. After surgery, drugs to suppress Washkansky's immune system leave him susceptible to sickness, and 18 days later he dies from double pneumonia.

1968. Peter Barker-Mills creates an endowment fund to part-finance Arnolfini. Jeremy Rees becomes full-time director

The scheme of investment prepared for the Peter Barker-Mill trust is accepted by the Charity Commissioners. Income from the trust enables Jeremy Rees to become full-time director of Arnolfini and he resigns his teaching post at the Bath Academy of Art in Corsham.


1968. Arnolfini initiates groundbreaking New British Sculpture exhibition, distributed throughout the city centre. Opened by Jennie Lee

When Arnolfini opened in 1961 Jeremy Rees, Arnolfini's enthusiastic director, had wanted to put a sign up above the entrance declaring, Enjoy Yourself! His desire for contemporary art to be seen and enjoyed by as many people as possible is realised in his daring exhibition New British Sculpture; Bristol, which locates colourful contemporary fibreglass sculptures by artists, many of whom had taken part in the 1965 New Generation exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, in prominent sites in central Bristol. (One of the artists, Frances Morland, will later use his fibreglass sculptures as vessels in which to ship dope from Morocco to America). This is the first time in Britian that a temporary sculpture exhibition is distributed so openly in public city-centre locations, and marks a move away from the tradition of sculpture as architectural decoration, or permanent monument dedicated to a famous individual or event.

Most Bristolians are unsure what to make of it, but the national art press are excited by the exhibitions' ambition, whilst recognising it is not an unqualified success. As The Times critic Guy Brett notes, "there is a fatal gap between the [gallery] spaces the sculptures were conceived for and the spaces found for them in Bristol.. This is not to say that the sculpture cannot be shown outside; only that "the context has to be considered not only considered, but necessary"

Nevertheless, Rees has made a start, and generates the impetus for the City Sculpture project to develop site-specific public art within eight regional British cities.

1968. The Race Relations Act. It becomes illegal to refuse public services on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic origin, UK

The new Race Relations Act has come into force, making it illegal to refuse housing, employment or public services to people because of their ethnic background. The Act extends the powers of the Race Relations Board to deal with complaints of discrimination; and to promote "harmonious community relations".

1968. Roger Hilton, Harold Cohen


Harold, and his brother Bernard, are British painters with established international reputations. Both were selected for inclusion in the British Pavilion at the 1966 Venice Biennale, along with Anthony Caro, whose work had been seen in New British Sculpture; Bristol. This year, as well as showing paintings and screenprints at Arnolfini, Harold Cohen travels to America on a visiting lecturership at the Visual Arts Department University of San Diego in California. Whilst there he is introduced to the work of the computer science department, sparking a lifelong interest in cybernetic art. Cohen will become the author of the celebrated AARON progamme, an ongoing research project to instruct a machine to paint.

Cohen's exhibition will tour to Dartington Hall in Devon, one of many exhibitions which Arnolfini arranges for venues throughout the region.

1968. Disaster Day: The Great Floods, Bristol

On Wednesday 10th July over five inches of rain fall on Bristol in less than 24 hours. Much of south Bristol is under water. The tobacco factory of W D & H 0 Wills at East Street is brought to a standstill as flood waters engulf machinery, destroy stocks, cut off power, telephones, and damage the firms 500,000 computer. Large quantities of cartons of flood damaged tobacco and cigarettes are removed to the Corporation Refuse Tip at Lawrence Weston from where they are salvaged by local residents. Front parlours and outhouses are quickly transformed into tobacco warehouses and, it is rumoured, for a considerable time afterwards a steady and lucrative trade is carried out in local pubs with cut-price cigarettes.

1968. Cybernetic Serendipity, Jasia Reichardt, ICA, London

The exhibition is, just as its title suggests, is inspired by Norbert Weiner's cybernetics - and specifically the feedback loops between between technology and creativity. The curator Jasia Reichardt (1933 - ) organises the exhibition into three sections:

  • computer generated work - visual arts, poetry, music, film and animation
  • cybernetic devices - robots, and painting machines
  • machines demonstrating a use of cybernetics

Reichardt is clear; We are dealing with an exploratory field, all attempts at a historical perspective or firm evaluation are out of place. The exhibition therefore, is essentially a reportage of current trends and developments.'

Reichardt, Jasia (ed) (1968) Cybernetic Serendipity, the computer and the arts, London, special issue of Studio International.

1969, Concordes maiden flight

Concorde 001 makes its first flight from Toulouse on 2nd March, captained by chief test pilot Andre Turcat. Powered by four Olympus 593 engines, built jointly by Rolls Royce in Bristol and Snecma in France, the test flight reaches 10,000 ft and speeds of less than 300mph. The first British Concorde, Concorde 002, built at BAC's Brabazon hangar in Filton, will fly the following month, but it will be November 1970 before the Concordes reach speeds of Mach2, twice the speed of sound.

1969. Group One Four: John Berry, Roy Grayson, Mauro Kunst, Brian Yale

"As a solution to the difficulties arising out of packing, transporting and insuring works of modern art our COMPACK and EUROMINIPROTOPACK exhibitions have been specially designed by us. The COMPACK is an aluminium box meauring 75cms cube that fits excatly into the rear of a Ford 5cwt van or a Renault 4L. The box contains a complete show of medium sized pieces including paintings, sculptures, multiples, drawings and prints. Our intention is to take the box over the Channel by car ferry and from there on each gallery which shows the COMPACK repacks and passes the box on to the next gallery. The first box was delivered to a Brussels gallery last November and we hope to have four of these boxes in ciruclation throughout Europe and the UK by the end of this year. One box fills an average gallery; more than one box can be sent when necessary."

Arnolfini exhibition catalogue

1969. First moon landing, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin

That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.

Neil Armstrong At the coldest of the cold war, the Soviet Union launch Yuri Gagarin into space and the United States are shocked to find themselves second in the race to space. President John F. Kennedy promises, "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."

The US unleash the most intense burst of collective creativity; 400,000 people are employed in research at Government departments and Universities, $24 billion is spent in the largest long-term investment ever made in peacetime.

Just eight years later, at 9:32 a.m. a Saturn V rocket launched Apollo 11 into the sky from its base in Florida. After one-and-a-half orbits of the earth, thrusters flare and the command and service module Columbia with three astronaughts aboard begin their three-day journey to the moon. On July 19, Collumbia enters lunar orbit, and eventually Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin board the Eagle lunar module, detach from Columbia (where Michael Collins remains orbiting) and descend to the moon's surface. On July 21, Neil Armstrong steps out of the lunar module onto the Moons surface. The first man off-world. After 21 hours, the lunar module blasts off to re-dock with Columbia, and with all three astronauts and lunar samples safe, they begin their journey back to earth. On July 24 the command module reenters the earth's atmosphere, at 24,000 feet parachutes deploy to slow Columbia's descent and it safely splashes-down in the Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii.

1969. Live In Your Head; When Attitude Becomes Form, Harald Szeeman. Kunsthalle Bern

Swiss curator and art historian Harald Szeemann (1933 2005) pioneers exhibitions in which the exhibited artworks are assembled to explore a particular curatorial interest. Installed at the Kunsthalle Bern, and then at the ICA in London, Live in your Head: When Attitudes Become Form promises to trace ideas as they find form through a material presence; and through its subtitle Works-Concepts-Processes-Situations-Information describes a range of possible methods. The exhibition introduces many of the productive de-materialised machines of Conceptual Art, and also the radical material economy of Minimal Art. It also signals a profound change in the public role of the curator, from someone who 'takes care' of existing artworks in a collection, to a person who creates, produces, finds funding and intervenes in the production of an artwork, or exhibition.

Szeemann, Harald (1969) When Attitudes Become Form Bern, Kunsthalle Bern

1969. Art Workers Coalition, New York

Bitterly unhappy with how his artwork is exhibited, artist George (?) Takis removes one of his sculptures from the Museum of Modern Art. In sympathy, a loose-knit group of over 300 artists, critics, writers, and arts administrators form The Art Workers Coalition (AWC) to present MOMA with a list of 13 demands. One of them being a public hearing on museum practice and reform. They are refused. In response, the AWC question the political economy of the artworld, the function of artistic autonomy, and the lack of representation of women and those of different ethnicities in Exhibitions and collections. Its the beginning of the artistic critique of the institutions of art; institutional critique.

Ault, Julie (2002) Alternative Art New York, 1965 1985 The Drawing Center/University of Minnesota

1970. Arnolfini Music avant-garde music programme. Inaugural concert Michael Tippett

In October 1969 Jeremy Rees informed the Council of Management that there was no place or organisation in Bristol which was concerned with the performance of new music and, anticipating the move to the larger premises of Queen Square, he felt Arnolfini could fill this need. At Rees' suggestion Richard Hawkins, music critic, composer, fantastic cook, and one-time editor of Bristol Evening Post would be elected to the Council of Management to oversee its organisation. Established as a club, the intention is for the programme to be self-financing.

Arnolfini Music is officially launched with a concert given by the Fidelio String Quartet, Paul Crossley (piano) and Mary Thomas (soprano) in the presence of the composer, Michael Tippet, at the Theatre Royal, King Street, with wine afterwards at the Arnolfini Gallery in Queen Square. This ambitious programme of experimental music will provide a spur to the development of the Contemporary Music Network (CMN), founded by Annette Morreau in 1971.

1970. Move to 45 Queen Square, leased from JT Building Group

In 1968, the Council of Management turned down the opportunity to purchase Bush House on Narrow Quay for 50,000; they are wary of proposed plans for a new road scheme that would cut through the corner of the site. They devise a proposal to relocate Arnolfini adjacent to a proposed new City Museum and Art Gallery, on a large derelict site in Wine Street, close to Bristol Bridge, as part of a scheme drawn up by architect Hugh Casson. Whilst awaiting the decisions of the Bristol Corporation regarding the Casson proposals, John Pontin of Design-Build Group JT, and member of Arnolfini's Council of Management, suggests Arnolfini temporarily move to a warehouse on the corner of Queen Square, which JT had recently acquired for redevelopment, and which could easily be converted for Arnolfini's purposes.

Given the planning delays arising from City Dock redevelopments, Pontin is able to guarantee a tenancy of at least a year, rent free, and probably longer.

1970. ARPANET, digital information network

The United States Department of Defense is concerned about the ability of communications networks to survive a Cold War nuclear first strike. Research scientists conclude that the strongest communication system is a distributed nodal network. Where each node is capable of receiving, encoding, and parcelling messages into small 'packets', and then to send these 'packets' along any functioning pathway to their nodal destination. Here they can be recieved, decoded and reassembled into coherent wholes. The system is implemented as the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), is the world's first operational packet-switching network and the core network of of what is to become a global Internet.

1970. SS Great Britain returns

In the Falkland Islands, an ambitious salvage operation is launched, and Isambard Kingdom Brunel's famous ship is re-floated using a submersable pontoon and towed back to Bristol. She had lain adandoned since 1937, after spending more than 40 years being used as a floating coal bunker. Thousands of people gather along the portway to watch as the SS Great Britain passes beneath the Clifton Suspension Bridge on her way back to the dry dock where she was built, launched, and now rests.

1970. Arnolfini Bookshop opens

Jeremy Rees is concerned that there is no art bookshop in Bristol, and the move to the larger premises at Queen Square enables Arnolfini to establish a specialist bookshop. Arnolfini Books sells exhibition catalogues, monographs, posters and prints, artist's books and limited editions. Through Unlimited they produce artists multiples, by Takis, Liliane Lijn, Kenneth Martin, Lygia Clark and Michael McKinnon. Artist's books for sale include Ed Ruscha's series of books; Crackers costs 2.25.

1970. Peter Maxwell Davies, Howard Hodgkin

Peter Maxwell-Davies presents a talk/recital/discussion at Arnolfini. In 1967 he formed the Pierrot Players with Harrison Birtwhistle, to give performances of contemporary music. Amongst the equipment he uses during the evening at Arnolfini are a harpsicord and a collection of stone gargoyles.

'Possibly the most important one-man show of the week was not, for a change, in London but in Bristol, where the Arnolfini Gallery - who in nine years have achieved that sort of reputation - are showing Howard Hodgkin's new paintings in their spacious warehouse premises'.

(Michael Shepherd, Sunday Telegraph Sunday 20 September)

1970. Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, Utah

Fascinated by geology, crystalline structures, monuments, ruins and the concept of entropy; driven by a desire to locate artworks outside the commercial confines of a gallery network, Robert Smithson (1938 - 1973) installs artworks directly in urban or rural landscapes. Smithson purchases a plot of land on the northern shore of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, and constructs in the blood-red, algae tinted water, an enormous spiral; some 460 m long and 4.6 m wide from 6,650 tons of basalt rocks, earth and salt crystals. Land art, earthworks and site-specificity enter the lexicon.

Krauss, Rosalind (1981) The Double Negative: a new syntax for sculpture in Passages of Modern Sculpture Camb. Mass., MIT Press

1971. Bretton Woods Agreement collapses. USA suspends fixed convertibility of dollar to gold

On August 15, without prior warning, president Richard Nixon announces in a Sunday evening televised address that America was abandoning the Bretton Woods agreement, and removing the dollar from fixed-rate convertibility to gold.

Inflation in the United States, the vast expense of the war in Vietnam, a growing American trade deficit and increasingly vast amounts of finance capital circulating outside of governments control, were all pressurising the value of the dollar. With Bretton Woods abandoned, the dollar is allowed to "float", that is, to fluctuate against other currencies, and it promptly recalibrates. The collapse of the Bretton Woods system exposes a deepening contradiction between the tendency of finance capital and managed Free Markets to develop on a global scale, and the nation-state as a system of governance and administration.

1971. Matrix, an exhibition and programme of generative, conceptual and system based artworks and music

An exhibition by artists who have a particular interest in and concern for for conceptual generative systems both in visual art and in other creative disciplines such as music, mathematics, linguistics etc. Several of the artists were included in Systeemi, an exhibition of syntactic art from Britain at the Amos Andersons Konstmuseum, Helsinki, 1969.

In the music event medieval vocal music is heard alongside contemporary works for two pianos. The music makes use of systems of rhythmic modes - repeating patterns through which the flow of melody is articulated in large-scale units, or into which alterations are gradually introduced in such a way that each change is heard as part of a dveloping process. Michael Parsons and Christopher Hobbs play their own 2-piano works and are joined in the vocal pieces by Howard Skempton and Michael Nyman.

1971. Britain decimalizes and floats currency

Financial markets have expanded. Governments lack the regulatory technologies to administer the flows of finance through transnational markets, and so, torrents of capital sweep away the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system. As a consequence the pound is floating freely in relation to other national currencies and at this moment the British Government ditches the Imperial pound (), shilling (s) and pence (d) coins (a system in use since 1066) to launch a new, modern, easier to convert, decimal currency.

1971. Seven Television Pieces, Scottish Television, David Hall

Member of the Artists Placement Group, David Hall (1937- ) creates seven, three minute video artworks, to be inserted like adverts, as interruptions into regular programming. Broadcast unannounced by Scottish Television, these are the first examples of 'time-based' artworks on broadcast television, and an equally formative moment in the emergence of video art.

1971. Music by John Cage, Morton Feldman, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Christian Wolff

'Following the most successful concert with Kevin Ayers & The Whole World performing David Bedford's The Garden of Love in the Victoria Rooms, Arnolfini Music returns to the gallery. Electronics, pianos, bells etc. will be liberally distributed throughout the gallery and besides the problem of finding room for the audience there is also that of finding time for 12 items of music. The solution is to play several simultaneously.... All through the concert a rival attraction, Alison Knowles' Chair Piece for George Brecht will be performed, and beyond revealing that it is obviously for a chair, the rest had better remain a mystery.'

Arnolfini News, February 1971

1972. Peter Stuyvesant Foundation City Sculpture Project. Coordinated by Jeremy Rees and Anthony Stokes; sculptures located in eight British cities

Following the success of the New British Sculpture; Bristol exhibition in 1968, Rees had proposed to the Arts Council an exhibition of sited sculpture in regional cities. In collaboration with the Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, evenyually he is given the opportunity to organise their City Sculpture project. Together with Anthony Stokes, Rees commissions new sculptures for locations in Plymouth, Cardiff, Cambridge, Birmingham, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Southampton, enabling a number of sculptors to make works in relation to the sites on which they were to be shown.

Inspired by the Sculpture in Environment show in New York (1967) and the possibility that several of the works commissioned might be retained permanently by the cities, Rees suggests, the works will be sited for an initial period of six months, at the end of which the cities will have the opportunity to negotiate for their permanent retention. However, few, if any, of the sculptures are retained, even Nicholas Munros giant figurative gorilla sculpture for the Manzoni Gardens, part of Birminghams 1960s Bull Ring shopping centre, will quickly disappear.

(Although Munros sculpture will continue to have an eventful afterlife; see and

1972. Steve Reich

As one of only three appearances in the UK, Steve Reich, with Steve Chambers, Jon Gibson, Russ Hartenberger, Art Murphy and James Preiss, plays a programme of his own music at Arnolfini, including drumming part 1 and drumming part 3. In the summer of 1970 Reich studies drumming with a master drummer of the Ewe tribe at the Institute of African Studies in Ghana. Speculating on the future of music, Reich is quoted in the programme notes as saying "Electronic music as such will gradually die and be absorbed into the ongoing music of people singing and playing instruments. ... The pulse and the drone will re-emerge as basic sources of new music."

Judith Serota is now working with Richard Hawkins on programming Arnolfini Music. Visiting Arnolfini, where his sister is working, Judith's brother Nick is impressed by Arnolfini's ambitious plans to convert a delapidated waterfront warehouse into a new home for the contemporary arts. As he would later write, 'For those of us working outside of London in the 1970s, Jeremy [Rees] was the prime example of someone who showed how to realise a bold vision with an unusual combination of conviction, personal charm and persistence... He was far ahead of his time.'

1973. Ways of Seeing, John.Berger, BBC Television

One might simplify this by saying: men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. [...] Thus she turns herself into an object
John Berger

Made by English art critic, novelist, painter and author John Berger (1926 - ) Ways of Seeing is a four-part BBC television series, and also an accompanying book. Berger introduces Marxist cultural studies, a social history of art, and feminist criticism to art history and a growing media ecology of publicity and advertising. Seeing, Berger suggests, is inflected by class, gender, ideology and economics; all the forces traditional art history obscures.

Berger, John (1972) Ways of Seeing London, BBC and Penguin Books

1973. Banking crisis. Bank of England forced to quantitatively ease financial markets

Against a background of the pound loosing its value in foreign exchange markets, inflation devaluing the pound in peoples pockets, and the number of people out of work and claiming benefit rising above one million (the first time since the Great Depression of the 1930s), there is a dramatic property house price crash. The crash causes many smaller banks to peer over the brink, into bankruptcy. Banks were lending, based on the escalating house prices of the 1960s, and themselves borrowing heavily, to loan against the housing assets. A sudden downturn in the housing market, coupled with hikes in interest rates, leaves these smaller institutions with increasing numbers of debt defaults, unable to meet their borrowing obligations, and holding loans secured by property with lower asset values; negative equity. The Bank of England intervenes, it bails out around thirty banks, and has to 'assist' thirty more at a combined cost to the taxpayer of some 100 million.

1973. First speculative financial market for contemporary art, Robert Scull Collection sold at Sothebys auction, New York

In the midst of a financial downturn, and on the eve of divorce, Robert and Ethel Scull decide to sell 50 artworks from their amazing collection of American pop and Abstract Expressionist art, at Sotheby's auction house in New York. The Sculls began collecting in the mid-50s, when there was virtually no interest, or market for contemporary art, with funds derived from a taxicab business founded by Ethels father. When Jasper Johns first exhibits at the Leo Castelli Gallery, none of the artworks sell, and Robert Scull buys the whole exhibition.

The Auction sale realises an astronomical $2,242,900; Thaw a Robert Rauschenberg combine-painting that the Scull's bought for $900, sells for $85,000; Andy Warhols large-canvas Flowers bought for $3,500, sells for $135,000, and Jasper Johnss Double White Map bought for $10,000, fetches $240,000. The shock is not just from the Sculls unbelievable profits, but also from the realization that contemporary art is a viable investment vehicle. A speculative market for contemporary art is launched.

Schott, John and E.J. Vaughn (1973) America's Pop Collector: Contemporary Art at Auction 16mm film. New York, MOMA.

1973. Arnolfini moves to W-shed (owned by the Bristol Corporation, and later to become Watershed), Caf/bar opens

With the move to Bush House on Narrow Quay already on the horizon, Arnolfini's interim home in W shed provides the opportunity to further extend the artistic programme towards the scope and scale envisaged for Arnolfini's larger premises in Bush warehouse. John Pontin's JT Group acquire a short-term lease on W-shed, the last in a series of transit sheds, 'built in the late nineteenth century on the west side of St. Augustine's Reach, ... used for the cargo brought in and out of the Floating Harbour, with a railway linked to the original Temple Meads station designed by Brunel' (Adburgham:69), and Arnolfini move in.

With support from the British Film Institute (BFI), a 106 seat cinema is created, and the oil-skin trestle table used at Queen Sq on Arnolfini Music evenings is transformed into a full blown restaurant serving soups, pies, fruits in pies, flans, omelettes, special ice-creams, gateaux, and cheeses. Everything is home-made where ever possible, with the exception of proprietary drinks: wines by the glass and bottle, light beer, aperitifs and spirits from the bar.

1973. Arnolfini Film - the cinema programme - begins with Salamander, (1971) dir. Alain Tanner

Arnolfini Film announces itself as a 'critical cinema' - 'engaged in an ideological critique of cinema, a running commentary on ways of seeing, which are produced, reinforced or negated in the changing relationships between audiences and films past, present and future.'

In the opening brochure for W-Shed, David Hopkins, Arnolfini's new cinema programmer writes, 'the overriding characteristic of [film] is the combination of ... artistic attributes with an unavoidable, and, at the present time, imperative involvement with how society sees and recognises itself. It is a characteristic that cinema holds in common with television. It is within this ideological common ground between cinema and television that Arnolfini Film finds the focus of its critical activity... [I]n the coming months [Arnolfini Film will] be paying particular attention to two neglected fields: films made for television, and short and animated films. The short film is the leading edge of experiment in film. Appreciation of this type of film is not helped by seeing them as an hors d'oeuvre before the main feature, so we will be showing them in their own context... Television is the dominant medium in our society but there is very little opportunity to see the often exceptional works that it produces once the transmission date is passed. We hope to make up for this neglect in the future planning of our ... shows.'

1973. Dance programme begins: Strider Dance Group and Majorca Orchestra

Arnolfini's first dance event, promoted by Another Bath Festival, in assocation with Arnolfini Music, features Strider, a new dance group who have appeared at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, ICES and in the ICA's The Body as a Medium of Expression. They work with a variety of artists, including the sculptor, Barry Flanagan and composer, Anna Lockwood. More recently they have been working with the Majorca Orchestra, an offshoot of the Portsmouth Sinfonia, whose members include English composer Gavin Bryars, and the Ross and Cromarty Orchestra. Members of the orchestra write their own music which is simple because of the limited capabilities of both the performers and composers. As with the Ross and Cromarty Orchestra and Portsmouth Sinfonia, the Majorca Orchestra attempts to make popular music not dependent on technical ability. The Portsmouth Sinfonia recently featured on an Omnibus programme playing Also sprach Zarathustra, composed by Richard Strauss.

1973. Britain joins the EEC

Something to get us going again. Prime Minister, Edward Heath

Britain is finally accepted into the EEC, well over 20 years since the project of integration had first begun, and 12 years after they had first applied to join. Politically and economically Britain is spiralling downwards, just as the six original Common Market countries are consolidating and thriving. Now, the institutions and protocols of Europe are well established, and unsurprisingly, they have not been developed with the British economy in mind. Painful concessions have to be made, particularly over preferential agriculture and trade subsidies with the Commonwealth, which still accounts for nearly half Britain's overseas trade. Ireland and Denmark also join.

1974. State of Emergency declared with widespread strikes, power-cuts, and three-day working week

The government intoduces pay freezes to offset the efects of inflation, which, in that wages were already struggling to keep pace with price inflation, causes widespraed dissatisfaction amongst trade unions. The National Union of Mineworkers encourage their members to work to rule as a result, coal stocks slowly dwindle. The government enters into negotiations, but to no avail.

1.6 million workers strike in support of the TUC's call for a 'day of national protest and stoppage', 290,000 civil servants and 47,000 gas workers strike, as did 7,000 London dockers. The government announce petrol and fuel deliveries would be reduced to conserve supply, electricity is limited to three consecutive days each week, and a "Three-Day Work Order" is imposed on factories, schools, hospitals, and public services. Military generators keep hospitals functioning and candles illuminate the dark nights, even motorists are asked to observe a voluntary 50 mph speed limit.

Eventually the Government declare a state of emergency as the electricity shortages bite, schools and workplaces close, and piles of rotting rubbish clog the streets.

Sandbrook, Dominic (2010) State of Emergency The Way We Were: Britain, 1970-1974 London, Allen Lane

1975. First Festival of Independent British Cinema

Organised by Independent Cinema West, an open collective of independent film makers and enthusiasts in the South West, the festival's selection panel includes Tony Rayns, Laura Mulvey, William Raban, Peter Sainsbury and David Hopkins, Arnolfini's first film programmer who helped pioneer an approach towards contextualised and themed programming within art house cinemas. Work in the festival is organised into three categories: films by individuals, films by groups, and work using 'expanded cinema' formats, which is shown in the gallery. Ian Breakwell, Tony Hill, Derek Jarman, Malclom Le Grice, Liz Rhodes and Peter Whitehead are amongst those whose work is shown.

1975. Bernd and Hilla Becher. Edward Ruscha. The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoise, Fear Eats the Soul

Bernd and Hilla Becher's flat, frontal photographs of industrial structures, grouped according to type, are exhibited in W-shed. Following its exhibition at the ICA, the show tours to the industrial cities of Hartlepool, Cardiff, Bristol, Bradford, Nottingham and Hull.

Jeremy Rees suggests Ed Ruscha as a candidate for the Arts Council of Great Britain's series of one-man touring exhibitions. Edward Ruscha, Prints and Publications gets its first showing at Arnolfini. The show includes a range of lithographs and silkscreens by the Los Angeles artist since 1968, as well as all his books since 1965. Crackers costs 3.50.

Amongst the films screened at Arnolfini in June are Luis Bunuel's The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoise, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Fear Easts The Soul.

1975. Artists Over Land exhibition: Richard Long, Hamish Fulton, Marie Yates and Phillippa Ecobichon

Arnolfini's exhibition organiser, Clive Adams writes, 'The exhibition has been organised in order to represent the work of artists who have for some years been working in landscape situations. It attempts to conjure up a greater awareness of our own 'presence', as exemplified by four artists who have had particular perceptions of 'being' in the natural landscape.'

Artists Over Land is the first time that the work of Richard Long, who was born and lives in Bristol, has been shown at Arnolfini, and the last exhibition at W-shed, before the move to Narrow Quay. RICHARD LONG QUOTE

1975. Move to Bush House, leased from JT Buildings Group.

After protracted negotiations JT is finally able to purchase Bush House, the lease for which had been offered for sale again to Arnolfini, this time for 200,000. Outline planning consent for the conversion of the warehouse, now a Grade II listed building, had been sought on the basis that JT develop the derelict warehouse for mixed use, with Arnolfini occupying 18,000 sq ft on the ground and first floors, and the floors above being fitted out for commercial office use.

Costing over 1m, Arnolfini's share of the development costs is 431,000, 250,000 of which is made up from donations, largely from Peter Barker-Mill, with other funds coming from grants from the Arts Council, Gulbenkian Foundation and British Film Insitute. JT agree a 125 year lease to Arnolfini, with an annual peppercorn rent of 5p a year, with the two organisations sharing the building's service charges.

The design and build work is led by the architects Roger Mortimer and Mike Duckering, together with structural engineer Bob Evans. Externally, the building's facades are cleaned and restored, and new window frames and glazed doors are inserted. Inside the space is gutted and then rebuilt with a reinforced concrete structure of columns and 'waffled' ceilings, which replace the old wooden floors and cast iron Doric columns, all supported on new concrete piled foundations taken through the river silt. The massive stone walls remain supported on the original timber pile foundations. A large gallery is created on the ground floor, together with a cafe-bar and bookshop, with smaller galleries and offices occupying the first floor. An auditorium with raked seating for over 200 people, spans both floors. Equipped with retractable seating rake, lighting rig, sprung dance floor, large projection screen, and quadrophonic sound system, the auditorium is designed for multiple uses, including cinema, dance and music. The development receives widespread critical acclaim. William Feaver, the Observer art critic, calls it 'the grandest arts centre in the country, and probably the best appointed.'

The move leads the way in the revival of Bristol's desolate docklands, becoming one of the first examples of how the arts could stimulate economic as well as social regeneration. A report commissioned by the University of the West of England in 2002 on the economic, social and cultural impact of Arnolfini will highlight the organisation as 'one of the first examples in the UK of the arts being used for encouraging inward investment and economic regeneration leading .... to a likely total investment in the site of 600 million and the creation of over 3,500 jobs.'

Roland Adburgham A View to the Future JT Group - a radical approach to building and development Redcliffe Press, Bristol 2006

1975. Arnolfini re-opens. Howard Hodgkin. Grimethorpe Colliery Brass Band. Philip Glass Ensemble

Arnolfini is re-opened on Friday 17 October by Lord Esher, Rector of the Roayl College of Art and Chairman of the Arts Council of Great Britain's Art Panel. The first exhibition, sponsored by IBM, is of work by Howard Hodgkin. To mark the re-opening, Arnolfini publishes a new four-colour screenprint by Hodgkin, based on his painting 'Artificial Flowers'.

Founded in 1917 by a group of workman living in Cudworth, the Grimethorpe Colliery Band are the acclaimed exponents of Brass Band music. The Band, conducted by Elgar Howarth, perform works by Byrd and Holst alongside contemporary work by the Australian composer David Lumsdaine and Derek Bourgeois, who is teaching at Bristol University. This concert, to mark the re-opening of Arnolfini at Bush House is held at the Victoria Rooms in Clifton, a larger venue. The first concert in Arnolfini's new auditorium, held the following month, is four parts from Music in Twelve Parts, performed by The Philip Glass Ensemble.

1976. The Cortinas, Bristols first punk band

In March, a group of school friends with an average age of 16 and who hang out in Arnolfini's cafe-bar, form the loud and raucus band, the Cortinas. A future academic, Jeremy Valentine (Vocals), soon-to-be Clash member Nick Sheppard (Guitar), Mike Fewings (Guitar), potential Turner prize nominee, Dexter Dalwood (Bass), and Daniel Swan (Drums) - son of Peter Swan, band manager and Arnolfini's inaugural exhibition artist - burn brightly in the early firmament of Punk. After releasing two classic singles Fascist Dictator and Defiant Pose they splintered in June 1978.

1976. Patrick Caulfield. Rosemary Butcher Dance Company

William Packer, writing in the Financial Times, notes how Caulfield's paintings are 'extremely simple and straightforward, but there is the rub; for they are disconcertingly so, the paint flat and unmodulated, the colour crude and tasteless, the drawing effected by a thick and unvarying black line ... Caulfield leads us wryly and calmly into his world of cafes and hotels, and tourist sounvenirs, making us test responses, and by extension our attitudes.'

Rosemary Butcher studied at Dartington before travelling to the U.S.A, where she was influenced by Judson Dance Theatre, Yvone Rainer, Trisha Brown, Martha Grahame and Merce Cunningham. The Bristol performances follow her acclaimed concert at the Serpentine Gallery earlier in the year, with a number of the pieces being worked specifically for the spaces used, which includes the quayside outside Arnolfini. 'It is the influence of the environment on movement, and also how moving affects the environment, that is the basis of my work-in-development', she writes.

1976. David Nash. Seminar: Art Education, Galleries and Art Today

The weight of the trunk squeezes the cut, pinches the saw. Wedge the cut open. Hammer in the wedge, bang it down hard; the trunk lifts up and opens the cut. The blade glides through as smoothly as at the beginning. The trunk holds to the last grain, then gives, cut clean through.

David Nash, from his catalogue Loosely Held Grain.

Arnolfini organises the seminar 'Art Education, Galleries and Art Today', bringing together a Head of a Fine Art Department, a Gallery Director, an art critic, an artist, and representative from the Arts Council, in the belief that the issues involved in the existing 'Art System' merit serious re-assessment. Despite the new academic status of Bachelor of Arts Degrees with Honours in Fine Art, very few graduates are managing to continue as full-time artists. This is chiefly to do with the disadvantageous ratio of graduate numbers to probable opportunities, but a contributing factor is that most students are ill-prepared to sustain in this situation.

1977. Continuous Diary, exhibition and readings Ian Breakwell. Robert Smithson

Breakwell describes his practice as including 'collages, visual texts, drawings, photo-collage, events, theatre performances, film, film performances, tapes, installations, environments, video, objects, photo-text sequences, film/slide projection sequences with mag, sound, photo-assemblages, writing and reading of prose texts'. Continuous Diary is the first of three presentations (the others being the I.C.A. in London and the Midland Group in Nottingham) held in places where Breakwell had lived; Breakwell had organised exhibitions at the Bristol Arts Centre (later to become home to the Cube microplex) between 1965 and 1968. Included in the presentation is the film The Journey, made following a period of time spent Breakwell with British Rail at the instigation of the Artists' Placement Group.

130 of Robert Smithson's drawings, originally brought together in April 1974, nine months after the death of the artist in a plane creash near the site of his latest Earth Work, are shown togther with the films 'Spiral Jetty' and 'Swamp'. This is the first time that the drawings have been shown in England.

1977. On Site, exhibition of interventions in rural and urban settings

An exhibition of works and proposals particular to natural landscape and urban sites in and around Bristol and locations within Arnolfini. It attempts to show work by artists for whom place or site is indivisible from the work itself - the new work acting in various ways to increase our awareness of the uniqueness of our locality. Mac Adams, Stephen Best, Susan Bonvin, Ian Breakwell, John Brooks, Daniel Buren, Clare Chamberlain, Bob Chaplin, Jane Clark, Doug Cocker, Bernadette Currie, Jan Dibbets, Phillippa Ecobichon, Andrew Eden, Mark Frith, Hamish Fulton, Eric Geddes, John Harper, Tim Head, Susan Hiller, Robert Janz, Chris Jennings, Richard Long, Albert Mayr, Tim Mapston, David Nash, Glen Onwin, Nicholas Pope, Peter Randall-Page, Bruce Robbins, Nigel Rolfe, Ray Smith, Amikan Torn, David Tremlett, Gerry Whybrow, Terry Wright.

1977. Tony Sinden and David Dye film installations, Jewellery Class of '77. Marcel Broodthaers. Martin Parr

Tony Sinden and David Dye take over Arnolfini's large gallery to present film installations; Dye using mirrors as part of the projection process, Sinden using both projected images and real objects to create an environment which the spectator will share.

Continuing the programme of jewellrey exhibitions which started in 1961, Arnolfini presents the work of four recent graduates: Esther Knobel, Gillian Sternbach, Ian Burch and Victoria Diehl.

'It is up to the attentive reader to find out what devilish motive inspired this book's publication', (Broodthaers). An exhibition of Marcel Broodthaer's editions, books and films brought together at Arnolfini, the year after Broodthaers' death.

Martin Parr last exhibited at Arnolfini in 1975 with the exhibition Home Sweet Home. Beauty Spots is a photographic survey exhibition of the most famous beauty spots in Britain, and the people that visit them.

1978. 1st Viral pandemic. HIV AIDS virus identified in USA and Sweden

First recorded on the 5th June, when the U.S. Center for Disease Control report a cluster of unusual lung infections in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is traced to primates in the west of Sub-Saharan Africa, probably jumping-species and transferring to humans during the early 20th century.

HIV like most viruses reprograms host cells, to make new copies of itself. HIV has just nine genes (compared to more than 500 in a simple bacterium) three of them contain information to make proteins for new virus cells. The other six control the ability of HIV to penetrate a host cell, and then code the host to copy the virus into the cells nucleus, from where it is spliced into lifes operating system, DNA. From there the virus spreads rapidly through the human body, wrecking the immune system. Once a person is infected, they can pass the virus to others through the exchange of intimate bodily fluids.

By the beginning of July 1982 there will be a total of 452 cases, in December a 20-month old child who has received multiple blood transfusions dies from AIDS related infections, sparking widespread public concerns about the blood supply. AIDS slowly becomes a pandemic, thirty years later there will be 33.3 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.6 million new HIV infections per year and 1.8 million annual deaths.

1978. Louise Brown, first test-tube baby

In Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, a human egg is fertilised by an in vitro (IVF) proces. In IVF, egg cells are removed from a donor (although this could also be the potential mother), fertilised by sperm, cultured until having reached the 68 cell stage (zygote) and then transferred to a future mother for successful termination. Louise Joy Brown is the first person conceived and born through IVF, a 'test tube baby'. The most precious act between humans is technologised.

1978. Performances by General Idea, Marc Chaimowicz, Stuart Brisley and Ting: Theatre of Mistakes

Canadian artist collective GENERAL IDEA perform GLAMOUR at Arnolfini. Since 1972 they have semi-anually published their own magazine FILE, an anagram of LIFE (magazine), whose cover layout it apes. Do you get the GENERAL IDEA?

Chaimowicz, Brisley and The Ting perform at Arnolfini as part of a series of performance events, films and talks, under the title Rites and Roles. Chaimowicz performs his single performance Doubts, a sketch for video camera and audience, Brisley a four day durational performance entitled Bodyspace drawing and context involving a bodily exploration of the gallery space 'to include drawing, sculptural and painterly means', and The Ting perform Going, Waterfall 3 and Rape of the Mind. Writing in the Arnolfini Review, Sarah Kent describes The Ting's work as 'carefully structured and rehearsed interactions... The success of each sequence', she goes on to say, 'relies on achieving a fine balance of tension between the rigid rules that govern each transaction, the mistakes made by individual performers coupled with their intense concentration, and the apparent absurdity of the content. The net result is both serious and ridiculous at once - a macabre misture of the everyday and the surreal.'

1979. Primitive autonomous machines

Primitive autonomous machines are able to move in unknown environments, sense data, extract knowledge, calculate, reason, and finally, act. The machine is given simple rules to obey, and in simulations suggest that primitive machines are able to learn through experience. Unassisted, the Stanford Cart successfully crosses a chair-filled room.

1979. Peter Barker-Mill creates the Ashley Clinton Endowment Fund for Arnolfini

During this year a gift of agricultural land and cottages in Hampshire, and other property under short term tenancy is made to Arnolfini by Peter Barker-Mill. The benefit of the gift is disclosed as a donation for endowment. Rents are received from Ashley Manor Farm and Cottages, Hordle Manor Farm, Becton Farm, Newlands Manor Farm and Cottages, Sansomes Cottage, Keepers Cottage, holiday houses and beach huts, as well as monies earned from grazing and shooting. For the year ended 31 March 1981, Arnolfini's balance sheet lists the net income from the Ashley Clinton Estate as 12,087.40.

1979. Britain abolishes financial market controls. London becomes centre of global financial trading

Britain begins the deregulation of its major financial markets by abolishing controls on the purchase and sale of foreign currency. This is coupled with favourable tax incentives to attract overseas banks and financial institutions, and a change in legislation making international investment, acquisitions and mergers easier. The City of London becomes a major hub for global finance and its institutions.

1979. Peter Greenaway and Michael Nyman Band

Peter Greenaway, film maker, and Michael Nyman, composer present past and current work arising from a collaborative investigation into the alliance of music and film. This particular programme gravitates around four projects. 'One to a 100' - a music and film collaboration engineered to structure the numbers 1 to 100 arranged chronologically giving no one number more film space than another. 'Vertical Features Remake' - an attempt to reconstruct a supposedly lost structural film featuring 121 images. 'A Walk Through H' - journey, real or suppositional, taken on the evidence of 92 maps. And current work on a small area of a new feature-length project funded by the British Film Insitute, called 'The Falls'.

1979. Discussion: Modern Art In Public Galleries: Who decides what? Women and Film, film season

Accompanying The Bristol Sample exhibition, in which all the artists have been invited to participate on the basis that they had been part of a Gulbenkian Foundation funded Enquiry into the Economic Situation of the Visual Artists. This Enquiry has, as one of its aims, the production of statistics on the economic situation of artists in Great Britain. Tony Haworth, curator of Southampton Gallery, leads this related open discussion.

Arnolfini are co-ordinating the cinema programmes at Arnolfini and Bristol Arts Centre, King Square. Women and Film is a season on images of women in films and on feminist cinema. Films include Redupers, The Left-Handed Woman, Jeanne Dielman and Al No Corrida - Empire of the Senses.

1980. 150, 000 visitors. Dance Umbrella Festival. The 1st British Art Show. International Festival of Improvised Music

Arnolfini presents its own Dance Umbrella Festival as an off-shoot of the London Umbrella which takes place at the same time at the ICA and the Riverside Studios. Dance Umbrella brings together a selection of contemporary dance groups from the USA, Canada and Britain.

Presented in conjunction with the Bristol Musicians Co-op, the festival centres around audio installations in the gallery by Max Eastley, alongside a programme of events. Performers include David Toop, Maggie Nicols, Alvin Curran, Trevor Wishart, Ian and Will Menter and Lily Greenham.

Bill Packer, art critic to the Financial Times, has spent two years selecting work for the first British Art Show. He describes his brief 'to travel as widely as possible through England, Scotland and Wales, and to select from the wide vareity of work that I saw whatever I thought to be the best, or the most interesting, of current painting and sculpture. And if it turned out that everything I chose or nothing came from London, or that every artist was famous and well established or entirely unknown, so be it.' Already seen in Sheffield and Newcastle, the British Art Show comes to Bristol in April, where it is shown at the Royal West of England Academy and the City Museum and Art Gallery, as well as Arnolfini.

1980. Womens Images of Men. Crowd Scenes Sally Potter

A direct and disturbed reaction to Allen Jones' retrospective at the ICA, where fetishistic images of women, devised from pulp comics and magazines, including pornographic material, Jacqueline Morreau, Joyce Agee, Catherine Elwes and Pat Whitehead, all members of the Women's Art Alliance, organise two exhibitions of women's art, the first organised round women's images of men, through painting, drawing, sculpture and photography and the second, About Time, for artists working in performance, video and installation.

Maedee Dupres, a young dancer/choreographer, who danced with Rosemary Butcher between 1975 and 1978, performs a series of solo dance performances at Arnolfini, including Sally Potter's Crowd Scenes, to music by Lindsay Cooper.

1980. Guggenheim Venice. Beginning of corporate museum experiment

Niece of Solomon R. Guggenheim, Peggy Guggenheim is a passionate and knowledgeable collector of contemporary and modern art. Exhibiting her collection at the 1948 Venice Biennale, artists such as Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, and Mark Rothko are shown in European for the first time. While in Venice Peggy bought Palazzo Venier dei Leoni on the Grand Canal, where she takes up residence, holds exhibitions of sculptures in the garden, and eventually opens her collection to the public.

At the age of 81 on December 23, 1979 Peggy Guggenheim resolves to donate her palace and collection to the Guggenheim Foundation. On her death a year later, Guggenheim Venice opens.

1980. St Pauls riots. Alienation amongst black youth leads to increasing racial tension, aggravated by poor housing and alienation

Tension is risisng in the predominantly Afro-Caribbean community of St Pauls. Unemployment, poor housing and the police increasingly using the Stop and Search laws that permit an officer to stop, search and potentially arrest people on suspicion of being in breach of section 4 of the Vagrancy Act 1824, are all contributing. The riots errupt on 2 April when police raid the Black and White Caf on Grosvenor Road in the heart of St Pauls. After several hours of disturbance in which fire engines and police cars are damaged, 130 people are arrested. 25 persons are taken to hospital.

The Black and White Caf will eventually be closed, and is demolished in 2005.

1981. MS-DOS operating system and distributed computing

Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on, and manages computer hardware resources, peripherals, and enables the execution of various applications. In July International Business Machines (IBM) assigns a company called Microsoft to develop a 16-bit operating system for its range of desk-top machines. The Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS DOS) 1.0 consists of about 4,000 lines of code and is designed with a modular architecture to run on any generic machine assembly. 50 companies license the proprietory OS, and it becomes a worldwide business and administrative standard.

1981. Digital Camera

In August, Sony announce the Sony Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) the first commercial digital still camera. Its CCD sensor converts optical images into an electronic signal and produces images at a resolution of 570 490 pixels written to floppy diskettes capable of holding 50 still frames. The images are viewed on a television screen.

1981. Video Library opened. Homework, Maureen Paley. Siobhan Davies Dance Company residency

With video technology becoming increasingly accessible, Arnolfini opens a library of artists' work on U-matic video tape. This facility, one of the first of its kind in the country, aims to provide public access to audio-visual materials not yet generally or easily available. Users can select and programme their own encounter from a broad range of experimental tapes, including works by both independent film-makers (transferred onto video tape) and by artists who make single-monitor video recordings.

Homework, a 'cool and witty reappraisal of an east-coast 'home-town', where the simple presence of 'mom' adds a sureal note to snaps of typical buildings'.

As part of the Spring Festival of Dance and Performance, dancer and choreographer, Siobhan Davies, is in residence at Arnolfini, where she delivers public classes and workshops, school visits, a 'day of dance for schools' alongside two evening performances with her dance company.

1981. Objects and Sculpture exhibition. English Gamelan orchestra. Festival of Improvised Music, including Moniek Toebosch and her BRISTOLSCREAM

A two part exhibition, co-curated by Lewis Biggs and Sandy Nairne and shown concurrently at Arnolfini and the ICA in London, Objects and Sculpture, contrasts the strictly formal concerns of much sculpture from the 1960s and 1970s, by showing new work that appeals to the emotions of the spectator, often through the association of ideas and sometimes by incorporating objects in everyday use. The eight artists in the exhibition are Antony Gormley, Anish Kapoor, Richard Deacon, Peter Randall-Page, Edward Allington, Margaret Organ, Jean-Luc Vilmouth and Bill Woodrow.

As well as traditional Javanese music, The English Gamelan Orchestra play new work commissioned by English composers Michael Parsons and Mark Lockett.

Moniek Toebosch's improvised performance works with a crackle-synthesiser organ, developed especially for her at STEIM studios in Amsterdam, juxtaposing poetry and vocalisation.

1982. Watershed Media Centre opens

Britain's first dedicated media centre opens in June, on the other side of St. Augustine's reach to Arnolfini, in Arnolfini's old home of W shed. Watershed concentrates on new developments within film and photography.

1982. Artificial heart transplant

A surgical team headed by William DeVries at the University of Utah perform the first artificial heart transplant. Dentist Barney Clark makes worldwide headlines when he is given a second life with the Jarvik-7. The Jarvik-7 is a mechanical pump made of plastic and titanium, powered by compressed air. The air is delivered by a large external compressor through two tubes that pass into Clark's body via incisions in his abdomen. The system leaves Clark open to infections and after surviving 112 days with the heart still beating, he succumbs to a virus.

1982. Figurative jewellery. Childrens Art Club. The Subject of Painting

Figurative jewellery presents work by artists including Vicki Ambery Smith, Tom Saddington, Catherine Mannheim and Lynn Prendergast, whose jewellery miniaturisaties recognisable objects, often with wit and humour.

Arnolfini's Saturday Art Club for Children regularly sells out. Katy MacLeod, Arnolfini's Education & Information Assistant, works with artists to create workshops in response to Arnolfini's exhibitions.

A selection by Paul Rodgers of work by nine contemporary painters working in France,The Subject of Painting tours to Arnolfini from the Museum of Modern Art in Oxford.

1983. Rational Theatre/Malcolm Poynter: Orders of Obedience

Savage, graceful, menacing, seductive. Malcolm Poynter's sculptures, currently on show in Arnolfni's gallery, have been the inspiration for a collaborative production with Rational Theatre that surprises with the unexpected.

1983. Grameen Bank. First microfinance organisation and community development bank, Bangladesh

Started in Bangladesh, Grameen Banks are community-owned microfinance organizations and community development banks that make small loans (known as microcredit) to impoverished people (particularly women) without requiring assets as guarantees. Grameen financial organisations believe that charity creates dependency, whereas loans offer people the opportunity to take initiatives, providing earnings and enabling them to pay off the debt.

Grameen Bankss utilize trust and peer-pressure within a group to ensure that borrowers are obligated to repay the loan. The bank also accepts deposits, provides other financial services, and runs several development-oriented businesses including fabric, telephone and energy companies.

1983. 200,000 visitors. Richard Long. Stephen Willats Undercover. Paula Rego

The source of my work is nature. I use it with respect and freedom. I use materials, ideas, movement and time to express a whole view of my art in the world. I hope to make images and ideas which resonate in the imagination, which mark the earth and the mind.

From Touchstones a new book by Richard Long, with an essay by Michael Craig Martin, published by Arnolfini on the occasion of Long's first one-man show in Bristol.

In Paula Rego's first exhibition outside of London, the series of large works on display containing multiple images are based on operas; stories that are extraordinary, absorbing and sometimes ridiculous.

1984. Bush House featured on postage stamps celebrating urban renewal

The success of the project by Arnolfini and JT Design/Build to convert Bush House, and which pioneered the development of Bristol's dock area, is recognised in one of a set of four commemorative stamps on the theme of Urban Renewal.

1984. Second Sites, Kate Blacker. Geometry of Rage. Architecture and Continuity. Pandoras Box. Jazz Festival workshops

Second Site, the power to see into the future, is a faculty that is 'given' rather than acquired. The exhibition is a set of landscape metaphors; about the possibility of discovering peace and beauty in the landscape as well as the ability to pollute and destroy it.

Bringing together the work of Denis Masi, Deanna Petherbridge and Michael Sandle, the exhibition Geometry of Rage suggests a future of alienation, in which the dominant images are of conflict, decay and political disintegration.

Four illustrated lectures on the theme of Architecture and Continuity, accompanied by a small exhibition, is arranged as part of this year's Festival of Architecture in assoication with the Bristol Society of Architects.

Organised by Women's Images, the exhibition uses the story of Pandora to explore 'an alternative view of cultural history; spotlighting the basis of many embedded prejudices and fears affecting society at large and the individual psyche, as exemplified by the myth of Pandora's Box.'

Accompanying a week long festival of evening jazz concerts, a programme of daytime workshops is organised, led by Will Menter, Roy Asbury, Ben Baddoo and John Stevens.

1984. Miners Strike. Bitter struggle between unionised labour and free market ideology

More than half the country's 187,000 mineworkers are now on strike. The dispute began over an announcement by the Coal Board that 20 'uneconomic' pits would have to close, putting 20,000 miners out of work. The strike is a desperate struggle between the remnants of Fordist unionized labour and a government determined to introduce deregulated markets as a disciplinary force. For many, the strike is a defining moment for contemporary Britain.

A year later, the most powerful union in the country, the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is defeated, unionised labour is broken. The strike exposes deep structural divisions in British society and causes considerable bitterness, especially in Wales where whole communities are devastated.

Adeney, Martin (1986) The Miners` Strike, 1984-85: loss without limit. London, Routledge and Keegan Paul.

1985. Free Software Foundation and the General Public License (GPL), Richard Stallman

To prevent computer operating systems and programs from being either copied, modified or shared manufacturers stopped selling human readable source code and distributed only machine readable binary copies, protected by patents and copyrights.

Software engineer Richard Stallman worries that machine assemblies and the languages they speak are increasingly being enclosed by private property restrictions; and that this will stifle creativity. On several ARPANET mailing lists in 1983 he announces plans to produce a GNU operating system, which will be free for anyone to use, modify and share with others. Two years later he initiates the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to host the GNU project, and animate awareness over the freedoms inherently at risk in the copyright of essential languages and processes. To protect these resources he also develops a License, a piece of legal code to protect core creative freedoms; a copyleft license. The free, libre or open source (FLOSS) movement is born.

V 1.0 of the General Public Licenese (GPL) states you have the right to:

0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose.
1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish.
2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits.

1985. A Noise in your Eye, sound sculpture

An international exhibition of sound producing sculptures and installations, to be heard as well as seen. Includes work by Ken Gray, Hugh Davies, Peter Appleton, Max Eastley, Martin Riches, Alvin Lucier, David Keane, the Canadian group 'Sonde', Paul and Limpe Fuchs, and the brothers Bernard and Francois Baschet, two of the most important initiators of sound-art, whose approach to art is summed up in a phrase they like to use, ' Amusez-Vous!'

1985. Graffiti Art in Bristol, including 3D and The Wild Bunch. Late de Chirico

Inspired by Martha Cooper and Henry Chalfant's photographs of New York subway graffiti, and the film Wild Style, large colourful graffiti has begun to appear in public spaces in Bristol. Working in secret at night, these Bristol-based artists quickly gain a reputation for being at the forefront of graffiti culture in Britain. Arnolfini commissions a number of them - 3D (Robert Del Naja, later of Massive Attack), Z-Boys, Bombsquad and the London based artist Pride - to spray their work directly on to the gallery walls. The show, one of the first by a public gallery of graffiti art, is hugely popular. Alongside the exhibition are live displays of break-dancing in the gallery, where The Wild Bunch, the Bristol Sound system out of which will come Massive Attack and music producer Nellee Hooper, also perform.

Covering the period 1940 - 1976, this exhibition of de Chirico's paintings, sculpture, drawings and graphics re-appraises de Chirico's later ouvre, and his concern with the 'baroque' and 'neo-metaphysical'. This is the first time that much of this work as been seen in the UK.

1985. First Home and Loan crisis. Systemic debt default, USA

Savings and Loans Banks had been initiated in the Great Depression of the 1930s to promote home ownership amongst the struggling middle class. They are specialist banks that use low interest deposit and saving accounts, to fund house mortgages. In a climate of derregulation and risk, slow, dependable, Government backed and regulated, they became pressured to be more financially profitable. They raise interest rates to generate more capital, they start making commercial as well as residencial loans, and speculate with their increased capital in other markets. For example, S&L's start working closely with the investment bank Solomon Brothers, who invent, create and sell mortgage backed bonds or collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO). Essentially they repackage individual mortgages into variagated bundles, and issue bonds offering insurance on the risk of default, and access to the interest as a revenue stream.

In 1982 these new financial practices account for over half of S&Ls business, and three years later 10% of the previously solvent banks are technically bankrupt. As more banks go under, fearing a systemic financial collapse and catastrophic housing failure the Government steps in and agrees a taxpayer-financed bailout, of $50 billion to close failed banks and stop further losses. Over 1,000 banks with total assets of over $500 billion eventuall fail, with taxpayers contributing $124 billion in bail-outs. The Savings and Loans Crisis is the biggest banking collapse since the Wall Street Crash in 1929.

1985. Whos Afraid of Red, Yellow & Blue. Neil Jeffries

Organised to complement the Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference on Philosophy and Art, Seeing and Abstracting, and specially curated for Arnolfini by Guardian art critic Waldemar Januszczak, Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow & Blue? takes its name from the famous painting by Barnett Newman, in which the three primary colours boldly confront the viewer in large vertical bands. The exhibition explores an under-current of abstract art currently being produced which draws its inspiration from the work of Yves Klein and Barnett Newman, and which explores the spiritual and emotional resonances of colour, seen in isolation and divorced from form and content. Works by Alan Green, Gerhard Merz, John Murphy, Anish Kapoor and Zadok Ben-David feature, alongside Adam Barker-Mill's light box, which demonstrates the magical effects of mixing colour.

'Neil Jeffries uses the sheet metal and bright colours of cheap imported toys to construct his distinctive tableaux of contemporary life. Getting married, a holiday abroad, a steamy kitchen or a visit by the milkman are subjects surveyed into great sagas of jumbled detail.'

1985 Les Imateriaux, Jean-Francois Lyotard and Thierry Chaput, Centre George Pompidou, Paris

Co-curated by philosopher Jean-Franois Lyotard and design historian and theorist Thierry Chaput, Les Immatriaux consists of an exhibition; music performances, including the world premiere of Karlheinz Stockhausens Kathinkas Gesang; a film programme curated by Claudine Eizykman and Guy Fihman; a three-day seminar on the relationship between architecture, science and philosophy; and five new publications, including an experimental catalogue produced solely by a computer.

Lyotard intends the 'exhibition' to be a site of research, a place to practice with philosophical concepts, such as the role of time, matter, being and technology, and to explore how these intersect with ideas of exhibition, of presentation, of showing and appearance from the discourse of aesthetics.

Hudeck, A. (2009) From Over- to Sub-Exposure: The Anamnesis of Les Immatriaux London, Tate Papers Issue 12.

1986. The Big Bang. digitally networked global financial markets freed from state regulation. Exponential market expansion

While London is still a global centre of finance, the Citys' firms are failing to compete with foreign institutions. The Government identifies two problems; overregulation, and the dominance of a cosy, elitist, old boys' network of specialist financial firms. Inspired by Milton Friedman, they see that the solution lies in a free market doctrine of unfettered competition. They break the ancient monopoly of the London stock exchange, and new universal banks move in. These are financial conglomerates, such as Germany's Deutsche Bank and the US's Lehmann Brothers, capable of all types of transactions; from the transmission and storage of financial information, distribution of cash, transfer of credit, retail sale and purchase of stocks and shares, insurance, mortgages, gold and commodity dealings and so on. At the same time, Building Societies are demutualised and become banks, some Department stores sell stocks and shares, issue credit cards and lend money, and many manufacturing and service companies grow investment and brokerage departments.

The Big Bang lays the foundation of modern finance, it designates the explosive growth of finance and trading technologies, they are faster, networked, and 'always-on'. As a consequence grow financial markets grow exponentially and penetrate all aspects of contemporary life. National frontiers, which once ensured that market management would be responsive to government oversight and supervision, are now completely permeable.

1985. Peter Barker Mill resigns as Chair of Trustees. Jeremy Fry, entrepreneur, engineer and member of the chocolate dynasty, takes over

Taking over the Chairmanship of Arnolfini, Jeremy Fry pays tribute to Peter and Caroline Barker-Mill for their 'interest, enthusiasm and generosity', informing Arnolfini's Council of Management that since 1966, 'the Arts Council had contributed 1.3 million revenue funding, and 80,000 capital funding. Peter and Caroline, 250,000 through income from the trust funds of 1,250,000 that they had set up for the benefit of Arnolfini, and 250,000 captial funding.' The revenue producing trusts set up by Peter and Caroline are in perpetuity, unfortunately the revenue from the Arts Council is not.' Despite the Barker-Mill's endowment, Arnolfini has a cash flow problem. The latest Arts Council strategy, 'Glory of the Garden', produced within the context of Tory government funding caps and cuts (The Arts Council will go on to cut the number of organisations it regularly funds in half), expects any offers of grants to be matched 'locally', and Arnolfini is expected to find an additional 50,000 for the following financial year, and 100,000 the year after. The City Council, already under financial pressure, is reluctant to increase its meagre regular funding. For the Year ending 31 March 1986, the Council grant is 5,400.

1986. Jeremy Rees resigns as Director, after 25 years. Barry Barker replaces him

Jeremy Rees' sudden resignation comes as a shock. Barry Barker, former exhibitions officer at the ICA in London and the John Hansard Gallery in Southampton will replace him. The Bristol Evening Post, recognising that 'Rees has guided Arnolfini from its early days as a small provincial gallery to its current status as an internationally-known showcase for the best in the living arts', reports on the tensions between the Jeremys; Chair and Director. In its words Rees wants Arnolfini to remain 'a flagship for the experimental, the new, the potential classics' whilst Fry wishes 'Arnolfini to pay more of its way and to get out of the never-ending battles with a philistine council which regards anything above church hall drama as elitist and unnecessary'.

"In all my time here," Rees tells Venue magazine, "my one disappointment has been that the City and County have failed to make a realistic contribution to what has, in effect, been provided as a public service. Whatever one's feelings about individual elements of Arnolfini's programmes, the important thing is that there have been opportunities to see this sort of work. If you ask, 'What do people want?' the answer, as we would all say if we're honest with ourselves, is that we want the familiar; something that doesn't challenge our perceptions. The Arnolfini is about challenging perceptions ..."

1987. Wall Street Crash II. Contagious global financial crisis

Financial market deregulation and rapid expansion generates a widespread belief that finacial technologies are exceeding government oversight; and as a consequence 'insider trading', destructive 'asset stripping' and leveraged buyouts of viable companies with borrowed money, are dominating financial practices. There is a loss of confidence, trust evaporates, and the world's stock markets collapse after a frenzied round of panic selling. The Dow Jones industrial average plummets by a record 508 points, registering a percentage drop of 22.5% or $500 billion lost in single day. The crash in confidence is exacerbated by the networked computers of large institutional investment companies performing rapid sell executions, triggered automatically. The contagion jumps previously distinct markets, between stock, derrivative and bond markets, and trading has to be throttled-back and even suspended to enable the avalanche of trades to be processed. Stock markets in Hong Kong fall 45.5%, Australia 41.8%, Spain 31%, Britain 26.45%, Canada 22.5%, and New Zealand was hit especially hard, falling about 60%. The losses are far worse than the infamous "Black Monday" of the Crash in 1929.

Stone, Oliver (1987) Wall Street Los Angeles, 20th Century Fox

1987. David Chiperfield architect, refurbishes Bush House. Collaborates with artist Bruce McLean to decorate the Caf/bar

The charity commission authorises expenditure from Barker-Mill's endowment funds of not more than 350,000 for the discharging of certain liabilities and for modifying Arnolfini's premsises. Barry Barker invites David Chipperfield to remodel Arnolfini's spaces. Best known for designing Issey Miyake's London shop, Chipperfield brings a warm minimalism to Arnolfini's interiors, with hung ceilings and beautifully understated finishes in marble, wood and metal. The artist Bruce McLean, whose furniture-based sculpture has recently been exhibited at the Anthony d'Offay Gallery, collaborates with Chipperfield to create a dynamic and playful cafe-bar, working McLean's distinctive graphic drawings into welded steel, floor inlays and the terrazzo-topped bar and the vertical glass screen that runs behind the length of the bar. The most important things are, McLean says, 'the mood and the food'. Stylish and sophisticated, their cafe-bar is enthusiastically received in the design press.

1988. Maggi Hambling. Cuckoo, Station House Opera. DV8 Physical Theatre. Bits & Pieces Joseph Beuys

Moments of the Sun is an exhibition of paintings, drawings and watercolours celebrating the subject that has continued to absorb Maggi Hambling since 1984, the sunrise and the sunset.

A stage littered with junk-shop furniture becomes a space of infinite possibilities. Cuckoo explores beyond the boundaries of everyday space, where dark wardrobes, chairs and carpets are a constantly adjusting framework; where familiar objects have their own surreal identity.

DV8 Physical Theatre present Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men, loosely based upon Brian Masters' book 'Killing For Company', an intriguing account of the murderer Denis Nilsen.'

Bits & Pieces was assembled by Beuys for Caroline Tisdall, from the 70s until his death in January 1986. It is niether large in scale - though it is in scope - nor immediately splendid in appearance. What is unique is that it was deliberately given to Caroline piece by piece to build up a minature archive of his concerns and working processes. It is characterised by Beuys's attitude that there is no separation between art and life, since the process of living itself is the most creative art form.

1989. Cold War ends. Collapse of European communist states. Dissolution of the USSR

The world is leaving one epoch and entering another. We are at the beginning of a long road to a lasting, peaceful era. The threat of force, mistrust, psychological and ideological struggle should all be things of the past. President Gorbachev.

The leaders of the two world superpowers, the USA and the USSR, declare the end to the Cold War after two days of summit talks in Malta. On board the Soviet cruise ship, Maxim Gorky, the two men announce big reductions in troops and weapons in Europe. Presidents Bush and Gorbachev go on to sign a treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe in November 1990, establishing parity between East and West, and the first of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (Start) in December 1991.

Gorbachev manages dramatic convultions in the USSR, promoting liberalization of the political landscape (Glasnost) and enabling competitive markets into the previous command economy (Perestroika). Waves of reform ripple-out throughout the Communist bloc, grassroots organizations, such as Polands Solidarity movement, rapidly gained popularity and influence. The Communist governments in Poland and Hungary became the first to negotiate the organisation of free democratic elections. In Czechoslovakia and East Germany, mass protests unseated entrenched Communist leaders, the regimes in Bulgaria and Romania also crumble. Several Soviet republics also seek greater independence from Russia's rule, agitation for independence in the Baltic states leads to first Lithuania, then Estonia and Latvia, declaring their independence. The tidal wave of change is encapsulated with the fall of the Berlin Wall in November, which symbolized the collapse of Eastern European Communist governments, the divide of Europe, and the end of the Cold War.

1989. Richard Wilson. Kathy Acker reading. Makonde sculpture from East Africa. Electronic Print

Richard Wilson radically transforms the front gallery with an installation using steel grilling which brings the floor sloping up to the quayside window.

As part of Feminist Book Fortnight, the American Kathy Acker, experimental novelist, punk poet and performance artist, reads from her new novel Young Lust.

Makonde: a selection of individual wood figures and masks by the Makonde peoples of East Africa from the Malde collection. Originally used for ritual dances, the playful figures employ themes such as spirits and demons, family and sexual relations, and colonialism.

Part of the Bristol Print Festival, Electronic Print is an exhibition of computer generated prints representing over thirty conemtemporary artists and printmakers worldwide who draw on a mixture of traditional and new techniques to create work in a variety of scales from murals to minatures.

1989. Tim Berners-Lee designs architecture and releases protocols of web 1.0

[] to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will. Tim Berners-Lee

The World Wide Web (WWW), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via a global system of interconnected computer networks, the Internet. While consulting for The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland, British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee realises they need a network to store and share all the research being produced. He designs and installs the world's first web server, writes the first web browser, and makes the first web page.

In the process, he develops three essential technologies, which are to become the architecture of web 1.0:

1. a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
2. the publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
3. the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

He refuses to claim property rights over his innovations, and donates his work for others to utilise.

1989. Freeze, Damian Hirst, London

In an abandoned Docklands warehouse, south of the river Thames in London, 16 young artists participate in an exhibition organised by a student called Damien Hirst, from Goldsmiths College of Art. Freeze encapsulates a trend. Unable to enter the tightly controlled circuit of commercial galleries, young, ambitious and entreuprenerial artists self-organise exhibitions in abandoned warehouses or factories. This will become a familiar practice over the following decade, as Hirst and the majority of the Freeze exhibitors will become known as the Young British Artists (yBas).

1989. Tate Gallery, Liverpool

As part of the regeneration of Liverpool, the Tate of the North in cooperation with the Merseyside Development Corporation opens in May, in the previously abandoned but now regenerated Albert Dock, one of the largest group of Grade 1 listed buildings in Britain. Tate Liverpool, is to be the northern home of the ever expanding national collection of modern art.

1990. Bary Barker resigns, Valerie Lloyd becomes acting Director. Richard Long. Adventures in Motion Pictures

BB and VL

Richard Long returns to show work at Arnolfini, having recently won the 1989 Turner prize. (Other artists shortlisted include Richard Wilson, Giuseppe Penone and Paula Rego, all of whom have recently show work at Arnolfini. Arnolfini Director, Barry Barker was on the jury.)

Commissioned by Arnolfini Live, resident company Adventures in Motion Pictures present the premiere of a new dance piece by choreographer Jacob Marley. Performed with The Infernal Galop choreographed by Matthew Bourne; a piece ripe with sexual innuendo, stylised romanticism and sleazy backstreet encounters.

1990. Vertical Balcony, Bruce McLean. The Cholmondeleys. Rachel Whiteread

Bruce McLean challenges the traditional areas, both spatial and stylistic, in which an artist makes an exhibition. Not limiting himself to the galleries, McLean takes over Arnolfini's entire building from bookshop to bar to cinema.

On tour from Chisenhale Gallery; GHOST is a monumental and tomb-like cast of an entire room taken from a deserted house in Archway. Also included in the exhibition are a series of new works cast in plaster from baths and doorways.

1990. Blue Lines, Massive Attack

The collection of music that constitutes Blue Lines is generally considered the first trip hop album, a fusion of electronic music, hip hop, dub, '70s soul and reggae. The album establishes Massive Attack as one of the most innovative British bands and founder of trip hop's "joyfully melancholic" Bristol Sound.

1991. GSM mobile phone network

The first short messaging service (SMS or "text message") message is sent using the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Its a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe technologies for a circuit switched, digital mobile phone network. The rise in mobile phone usage as a result of GSM is explosive, four years later it accounts for 80% of the global mobile market, some 10 million users.

1991. Frieze Magazine

Frieze magazine launches in June, it mixes writing about art and exhibitions with wider cultural comentary. Published eight times a year, it includes essays, reviews and adverts by writers, artists, curators and galleries.

1991. Tessa Jackson becomes Director

Tessa Jackson arrives from Scotland, where she has been Visual Arts officer for Glasgow City Council during its highly succesful 1990 City of Culture.

1991. Jack B Yeats. Art & Language. Flying Costumes Floating Tombs Keith Kahn, Shobana Jeyasingh

Jack B Yeats' first exhibition in a British public gallery since 1960. The younger brother of poet W B Yeats and a close friend of Samuel Beckett, Jack B Yeats is the most highly regarded Irish painter of this century. Yeats' paintings are based on years of observation of life in Ireland. His art is a poetry of memory that encapsulates the breadth and spirit of the Celtic peoples and landscapes.

Touring from the ICA, Art & Language 1987 - 1991 is an opportunity to see four major new series of work. Considered fundamental in the development of Conceptual Art, Art and Language were formed in 1968 and have continuously questioned the role of art and revolution, modernism and the museum. Celebrated by galleries around the world, the group deconstruct the art institution within its very portals.

Keith Khan is in residence in July, devising Flying Costumes, Floating Tombs, his latest public performance extravaganza combining dance, sculpture, costume and music. Derived from the East Indian Festival of Hosay (as celebrated in Trinidad) the performance fuses contemporary and traditional aspects of the Festival. During the residency Khan works with local artists, groups and schools to create the costumes.

Shobana Jeyasingh presents New Cities, Ancient Lands, a vibrant triple bill featuring work by Jeyasingh and Chandraleka, India's formeost female contemporary choreographer. Spanning three cities, new ideas and ancient traditions, the programme juxtaposes revolutionary dance work with pristine Bharatha Natyam choreography.

1992. Mining the Museum, Fred Wilson, The Contemporary, Baltimore

Political activist, installation artist, and contributor to the pracice of institutional critique Fred Wilson takes social justice as his subject and the Museum as his medium. Artists associated with institutional critique examine, question, deconstruct and intervene in the traditional display of art and artifacts in museums. Mining the Museum comissioned by The Contemporary and installed at the Maryland Historical Society gives Wilson his first opportunity to intervene in an actual museum and its display practices . Mining the Museum invites visitors to question the limitations of cultural institutions, to reflect on their role in the interpretation of history, and recognise the rhetorics of display.

1992. Guggenheim Soho, New York

During renovations and expansion of the Frank Lloyd Wright building, the Guggenheim open a small satellite branch in a 19th-century warehouse remodeled by architect Arata Isozaki, in Soho. Installed in two floors of the building, the museum features a Prada store, as well as galleries exhibiting the collection, and temporary exhibitions. The enterprise closes in 2002.

1992. Trophies of Empire. Annette Messager. Desperate Optimists

A collaboration between Arnolfini, Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool and Hull Time-Based Arts, Trophies of Empire presents new commissions by fifteen artists, which investigate the legacies of empire. Using a range of art forms, including sculpture, photography, video and mixed media, issues such as the Atlantic Slave Trade, Third World exploitation and the diaspora of black communities are explored.

The first opportunity for British audiences to see a comprehensive exhibition of work by the French artist Annette Messager. Teling Tales brings together a coherent body of Messager's work from the past ten years alongside several significant earlier pieces and a new site specific wall drawing created especially for Arnolfini. The notion of fragmentation is omnipresent in her work, relecting the diversity of demands which she feels disjoint a woman's life.

Using irony and humour, Desperate Optimists' Anatomy of Two Exiles examines the transient nature of contemporary Irish life and interrogates the sterotype of the typical Irish emigrant.

1991. LINUX operating System. Core component of the fledgling knowledge commons

Linux version 0.01 is one of the most prominent examples of free, libre and open source software (FLOSS), it's a complete operating system released under the General Public License version 2 (GPLv2). Inspired by the GNU project of Richard Stallman, Linux is conceived by Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds and rapidly accumulates thousands of developers and users around the world, who adapt code from other FLOSS projects to expand and improve the new operating system.

A software commons is emerging, powered by a gift economy of distributed inovation, and protected by the GPL. Linux is ported to many different platforms and adapted to multiple uses. It becomes the OS of choice for many mission critical machine assemblies, through mutating into APACHE server software the FLOSS ethic produces and manages the majority of the hardware infrastructure of the WWW.

1993. Mona Hatoum. Bobby Baker: How to Shop. Disrupted Borders

Several recent works by Mona Hatoum are brought together, including two large-scale installations. One of these is a major new work specifically created for Arnolfini using glass, steel, iron filings and magnets. The other, entitled Light Sentence, consists of two double rows of wire-mesh lockers of more than human height which run down the centre of the room. A single naked light bulb, slowly descending between the rows, projects an immense slow-moving tracery on the walls around, which some viewers find 'exhilarating', others 'sinister'.

Bobby Baker presents How to Shop: The Lecture, a complete guide to the art of successful shopping. Packed with handy hints and tips, How To Shop prepares us for the ultimate shopping experience - shopping for life.

Curated and selected by Sunil Gupta as his first project for INIVA (the Institute of New International Visual Arts), the threads of Disrupted Borders work across form and content, not to say continent. The fifteen artists are from Britain, Asia, Europe and North America and employ primarily the photographic medium. They illustrate a range of political and cultural issues away from the usual notions of Eurocentricity.

1993. Tate Gallery, St Ives

In 1939, with the outbreak of war, artist Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth settled in picturesque St Ives in Cornwall, soon joined by Naum Gabo and other emigre artists they founded an outpost for the international abstract avant-garde, strongly rooted in the local landscape.

After her death, Tate had taken over the management of the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden in 1980, and they started borrowing artworks from the Tate Collection to curate themed and complimentary exhibitions. The success of Liverpool encouraged Tate to consider a Western expansion of the 'family'. A former gasworks overlooking Porthmeor Beach was chosen and architects Eldred Evans and David Shalev selected to design a sensitive new building.

Tate St Ives opened in June, and in just six months 120,000 visitors, visited.

1994. Services, Andrea Fraser and Helmut Draxler, Lneburg and touring

It appears to us that, related variously to institutional critique, productivist, activist and political documentary traditions as well post-studio, site-specific and public art activities, the practices currently characterized as 'project work' do not necessarily share a thematic, ideological or procedural basis. What they do seem to share is the fact that they all involve expending an amount of labor which is either in excess of, or independent of, any specific material production and which cannot be transacted as or along with a product. This labor, which in economic terms would be called service provision [..] Helmut Draxler and Andrea Fraser

Services is an evolving exhibition and ongoing working group discussion organized by Helmut Draxler and Andrea Fraser, which originated at the Kunstraum der Universitt Lneburg, and then tours to Stuttgart, Munich, Geneva, Vienna, and Hasselt, Belgium. The resulting publication becomes a manifesto for the second generation of artists working with 'Institutional critique'. It suggests that it is no longer productive to attack an arts institutions from without (as early artsists initiatives attempted), what's necessary now is working critically and homeopathically with their practices, protocols, organisation, and management.

Bismarck, Beatrice von, Diethelm Stoller and Ulf Wuggenig (eds.) (1996) Games Fights Collaborations: Das Spiel von Grenze und berschreitung Stuttgart, Kunstraum der Universitt Lneburg and Cantz Verlag

1994. Cathy de Monchaux. Willic Doherty. Lecture: History of Arnolfini. Five Voices from Spain

One of Britain's most exciting sculptors, the cornerstone of de Monchaux's work is the skeletal superstructures of metal built up with the intricate bolting, folding, overlapping and latticing of sumptuous velvet, rich leather and lengths of silky ribbon.

Commissioned by Matt's Gallery in London, Willie Doherty's The Only Good One is a Dead One is about living with the fear of being assassinated, presented through a video installation - a visual display of terror drawing on both fiction and documentation. Doherty draws on the current affairs of Northern Ireland, forcing the viewer to choose between innocence and guilt, Catholic or Protestant.

The Friends of Arnolfini invite Jeremy Rees, founder and first director to talk about how Arnolfini came about. The present Director and Programming staff also share their ideas for the future.

Selected from an exhibition by Oriel 31, Five Voices from Spain includes artists Eva Lootz, Angeles Marco, Jaume Plensa, Manuel Saiz and Antonio Sosa. In their different ways they all reflect current Spanish sculptural as well as social and cultural preoccupations. In addition they make reference to and are influenced both consciously and unconceously by the recent history of Spain and its cultural roots.

1994. Goat Island retrospective

As part of the Chicago Oh Chicago series of performance, video and music from the Windy City, mesmerising performance group Goat Island give a survey presentation of work from the past five years, reflecting the tumultousness of those years in the United States' relationship with the world. They perform We Got a Date, Can't Take Johnny To The Funeral and It's Shifting Hank. (Over a period of twenty years Goat Island will perform all their touring works in Bristol.)

1994. UK National Lottery. Percentage of profits fund capital cultural projects

A private company, Camelot consortium has won the contract to run Britain's first national lottery which starts in November. The group predicts it will generate a total of 32bn during the seven years of its licence. It plans to give 9bn of that to the lottery's five "good causes"; charities, the arts, sport, National Heritage projects and a Millennium Fund.

1. 50% of sales spent on prize money
2. 12% spent on tax
3. 28% is divided between nominated "good causes"
* Charities 46%
* Arts 18%
* Sports 18%
* Heritage 9%
* Millenium 9%
4. The remainder goes to Camelot and retailers

Lottery funding initiates a remarkable transformation in the Arts in general, and museums in particular. Initiating the greatest investment in the fabric of existing public museums, and the building of new regional galleries since the expansion planned by the select committee of 1835, and delivered by Henry Cole and others during the Victorian era.

1995. Barings Bank, UKs oldest investment bank is ruined by trading obscure futures instruments

Working for the 233 year old Barings Bank in Singapore, head derivatives trader Nick Leeson is seeking to profit from differences in the prices of Nikkei 225 futures contracts in the Osaka Securities Exchange in Japan and the Singapore International Monetary Exchange. Such arbitrage involves buying futures contracts on one market and simultaneously selling them, at a higher price, in another. The margins are small, even thin, consequently the volumes traded to gain a meaningful profit, are enormous.

Through an absence of oversight, Leeson is able to open an error, or 'hidden account', to prevent the London office from receiving the standard daily reports on trades, prices, and profits or losses. Using the hidden account, Leeson is aggressively trading, routinely loosing substantial sums, hiding the results, and reporting back to London substantial profits. The Kobe earthquake sent the Asian financial markets into a terrifying spiral, Leeson bet on a rapid recovery of the Nikkei. It failed to materialize.

By December 1994, Leeson had lost Barings 200 million, yet had posted a 102 million profit. In February, Barings Bank auditors finally discover the error-account, and its around 827 million (US$1.3 billion) of losses, twice the bank's available trading capital. Similar to the Great Panic of 1890, The Bank of England attempts a bailout, although this time it fails. Barings is declared bankrupt and sold, while Leeson is sentenced to six and a half years in prison in Singapore. While the catastrophe is recorded as a 'rogue' event, there is a lingering suspicion that it evidences a systemic weakness in financial institutions.

Leeson, Nick (1997) Rogue Trader London, Sphere

1995. Big Paintings, Patrick Heron. Minky Manky. Postmodernity & its Discontents

One of the leading artists of his generation, this exhibition consists of large canvases produced in his studio in St. Ives in 1994. Suffused with colour and dynamism, the works evoke and reflect the visible, the world we know, through colour and a calligraphic-play of line across canvases ranging from 11 to 17ft in length. Arnolfini commission Heron to produce the calendar design.

Organised by the South London Gallery, sponsored by Beck's Bier, and curated by Carl Freedman, Minky Manky brings together work by Gilbert and George from the 1970s with new work younger artists who know one another and have worked or shown together since the late eighties. (They will later be known as part of the 'young British artists', epitomised by the Royal Academy exhibition Sensation)

Organised by Arnolfini Education and Bristol University's Continuing Education Department, Postmodernity & its Discontents is a series of lectures that present a variety of critical perspectives on key controversies in postmodernist theory.

1996. Bench Paintings, Michael Simpson. Sculpture, Louise Bourgeois. Even, Dorothy Cross

Produced between 1993 and 1995, Michael Simpson's Bench Paintings are large, measuring up to 18 feet in length. As well as being a fixed coherent form for grounding the painting, the bench acts as a metaphor for human forbearance provoking Beckett-ian images of endless waiting, suffering and death. One of the main foundations of these works is the death of the sixteenth century poet and philosopher Giordano Bruno who was burnt alive for heresy.

In a recent work by Cross, the artist drilled a perfect hole through the body of a leather-bound, gilt-edged family bible. The hole interrupts the biblcial etchings at poignant points and re-introduces physicality to this potent religious icon. Even, recent work by Dorothy Cross, focuses on confusing accepted patterns of inheritance and exploring notions of authority.

Louise Bourgeois: Sculpture brings together work from the late 1940s to the 1990s. Two recent works in the exhibition are Mamelles a wall relief in pink rubber latex which is a sensuous, curvaceous work and Spider, a giant looming creature nearly 3 metres in height.

1996. Plastic

Initiated by the Richard Salmon Gallery in London and then touring to the Arnolfini and New Art Gallery Walsall, Plastic is an exhibition which explores the polyvalent nature of this most ubiquitous category of manufactured materials.

1997. Dolly the sheep, first cloned mammal

Introduced to the world as Dolly, previously known as 6LL3 and born nine months earlier in July 1996, she was created at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. Dolly is the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell, through somatic cell nuclear transfer. Its a process in which a cells nucleus is placed in a de-nucleated ovum, the two cells fuse and develop into an embryo, which is implanted in a surrogate mother. The DNA of the nucleus dominates, making an exact genetic copy, a clone of the somatic cells donor.

Although rudimentary and wasteful, there were 277 failed attempts produced Dolly, the astonishing potentials of cloning are self evident. Prized livestock can be copied to optimise efficiency, useful plants reproduced and species facing extinsion revived. Logically, cloned humans are a possibility, although the legal and ethical issues are so thorny this seems unlikely in the short term. More likely are experiments with cloned procedures for human medicine, including disease and viral management.

1997. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. Lecture: How to be Your Own Art Dealer. Art and Psychoanalysis. ACE!

Between 1917 and 1934 Harlem became the centre for a renaissance of black cultural activity. Writers and artists flocked there to see the cultural phenomenon that was the Harlem Renaissance. Alongside the cabarets, clubs and parties, Harlem blossomed with new art and writhed with political debates and divisions. The voice of the New Negro emerged in the work of many artists, musicians and writers from Aaron Douglas to Bessie Smith to Langston Hughes. The exhibition is organised by the Haywood Gallery in London, and co-curated by Richard J Powell and David A Bailey.

Jacob Sutton leads a problem solving and confidence building workshop for artists, covering what you can do to be your own dealer/agent, obtain funding and sponsorship, attract media interest to your show, motivate people to come along, and sell and market your work all on a low budget!

Art and Psychoanalysis - a Spring lecture series looking at the relationships between psychoanalytic theory and performance, cinema, and visual imagery in literature.

ACE! A lively and diverse selection of new purchases made by the Arts Council Collection between 1989 and 1995.

1997. Guggenheim Berlin, in collaboration with Deutsche Bank

On November 7, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and Deutsche Bank celebrate the public opening of the Deutsche Guggenheim, a cooperation hosted in a 350-square-meter exhibition space designed architect Richard Gluckman and located on the ground level of Deutsche Banks Berlin offices, a historic building on Unter den Linden, in what was formerly East Berlin.

Each year Deutsche Banks curators organise one exhibition from its extensive collection, and the Guggenheim three from the Foundations, these then travel to other museums in the global Guggenheim network. The exhibitions are complemented by educational programming and commemorated by a limited edition artwork, produced and sold in conjunction with every exhibition.

1997. Guggenheim, Bilbao

Bilbao is the fourth largest city in Spain, one of the countrys most important ports, and had been a center for manufacturing, shipping, and commerce. In the late 1980s, in common with many other industrial cities, Bilbao was dilapidated and unemployment rampant. The Basque authorities embarked on an ambitious redevelopment program, including a new airport and subway system.

The centrepiece of the plans is the invitation to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, to bring a new Guggenheim Museum to Bilbao. On October 19, the spectacular museum structure made of titanium, glass, and limestone, hailed as the most important building of its time opens to the public. The Frank Gehry designed Guggenheim Museum Bilbao initiates the 'museum effect'. The 'museum effect' introduces a new funding model for cultural institutions, this is where a public money pays for the design, building and running of a museum, a private institution manages its collection through exhibitions, and a city is regenerated through cultural tourism.

1997. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)

The newly formed Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) aims is to improve the quality of life for all through cultural and sporting activities, to support the pursuit of excellence and to champion the tourism, creative and leisure industries.

They are responsible for Government policy on:

  • the arts
  • broadcasting
  • creative industries including:
o advertising
o the arts market
o design
o fashion
o film
o the music industry
o publishing
  • historic environment
  • internet and international ICT policy
  • licensing and gambling
  • libraries
  • museums & galleries
  • the National Lottery
  • press freedom and regulation
  • sport
  • telecommunications and broadband
  • tourism

1998. Asian financial collapse. contagious national bankruptcies follow

Asia is attracting almost half of the total capital investment of developing countries, local market expansion, high productivity and attractive interest rates suck-in international capital. As a consequence, asset prices inflate, especially in real-estate.

And then, the National economies slow. Suddenly Thailand has a foreign debt burden that it cannot repay. Effectively the country is bankrupt, in a desperate measure the govermnent floats the currency, and it collapses. The crisis spreads, Indonesia, South Korea and Thailand are infected, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Laos and the Philippines see plummeting currency evaluations, devalued stock and asset markets, and a precipitous rise the cost of debt.

Foreign debt-to-GDP ratios rise from 100% to 167%, and then accelerate to 180%. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) initiates a $40 billion loan-program to stabilize the economies of South Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia. Widespread rioting follows a sharp increase in food, growth slows, stutters, and then stops amidst fears of a worldwide economic contagion. The breadth, speed, and impact of the crisis directly impacts on the livelihood of millions, and it all unfolds within a mere few months, while international institutions seem powerless to intervene.

Stiglitz, Joseph (1996). Some Lessons From The East Asian Miracle. The World Bank Research Observer.

1998. Banking crisis, Russia

The Russian financial crisis is triggered in August. Contagion from the Asian financial crisis, resulted in a sharp decline in world commodity prices. A decade of rapid reforms, from a command to a managed market economy meant petroleum, natural gas, metals, and timber accounted for more than 80% of Russian exports, leaving the country vulnerable to adjustments in world prices.

On the 13th August the Russian stock, bond, and currency markets collapse as a result of fears that the government would devalue the ruble, default on domestic debt, or both. Annual yields on ruble denominated bonds fall more than 200 percent, and the market has to be close for 35 minutes as prices plummet amidst feverish trading, when it reopens, its down 65 percent.

On 17 August 1998, the Russian government devalue the ruble, default on domestic debt, and declar a moratorium on payment to foreign creditors.

1998. Tracy Moffatt. Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company. Jo Stockham. Eija-Liisa Ahtila. John Hilliard

"I like to create my version of reality, the work comes from me, what I know. Things I have seen and experienced, and things I think I have seen and experienced. Maybe it's just an exaggerated version of my reality." This is the first major show of Moffatt's work in the UK.

The installation by Jo Stockham, No News, develops from an on-going series of works which play with light and shadow, photographic and projected imagery and the notion of truth and fiction in media reportage. The gallery becomes a Victorian style playground for shadows produced by small figures cut from newspapers which rotate with the use of simple mechanisms.

In Eija-Liisa Ahtila's austere installation Me/We, Okay Gray, the audience is invited to sit and experience the short fiction film triology which alternates on three screens using a split screen technique. Here experimental narrative and storytelling techniques leave no doubt about the ambivalent relations between technology and subjectivity in the late 20th century.

Jeyasingh returns to Arnolfini with a new piece Intimacies of a Third Order, taking it's inspiration from the courtly martial art form of 'chau' from Horth East India and accompanied by live music specially composed by Michael Gordon. Performed as part of a double-bill, with Intertense, created by guest choreographer Wayne McGregor.

John Hilliard works methodically with the photographic medium questioning the limits of the technology and analysing its problems and possibilities for representation. This retrospective exhibition includes works from 1969 to more recent work which frequently uses montage and explores voyeurism and pornography.

1998. Peter Doig and Udomsak Krisanamis. Aardman Animation book event

Udomsak Krisanamis's paintings range from the small to the cinematic in scale. The intense black and blue spaces emit a kind of shimmering light made from a trashy world. His all-over compositions consist of thousands of strips of cut-up U.S. newspapaers, and more recently, Korean newspapers, supermarket receipts, blankets and transparent cellophane noodles, bound onto the canvas and painstakingly coloured out. Spots of seemingly luminous colour provoke a sense of a cosmic-like space, but these apparently luminous holes of light are simply the 'o's in the letters and the gaps between words. Doig paints artificial landscapes by the most conventional means, oil paint. Paintings which have a kind of hand-made quality yet are inescapably influenced by the various technologies of the 20th century, including cinema and photography. Whilst Doig admits that his work is sometimes percieved as ugly or amateurish on first view, he wishes to 'create something that changes from an image to something that becomes embedded in your mind.'

Peter Lord and Brian Sibley, authors of 'Cracking Animation' come to Arnolfini to talk about the history and achievements of Bristol's Aardman studios within the tradition of 3D animation, and the processes involved in its creation, from character, story board and sets to shooting the film. The talk is followed by six animated shorts: Going Equiped, Rex the Runt, Pib and Pog, Wat's Pig, Angry Kid and Creature Comforts.

1998. Google search released

to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful. Google's mission statement

The growth of information available on the WWW, the sheer volume of data, is making navigation difficult, even impossible. People, algorithms and softwares develop into 'search engines' which crawl, index, and search to help people find things. Web crawlers, also known as spiders, automatically browse the web. They find every page, and follow every link on every page to another page, and so on. Endlessly. The contents of each page are analysed, data extracted, then indexed, and stored in vast data bases in server farms. A search is a query addressed to the database via the index.

Conventional search engines return search queries by counting how many times the requested terms appeared on a web page. Google initiates an algorithmic page-ranking system that evaluates the links to the pages containing the search request, in no time at all google becomes a default navigation tool, and 'google it' becomes a common injunction,

1999. Caroline Collier replaces Tessa Jackson as Director. Accelerator

Accelerator brings together an international group of contemporary artists who are concerned with the transience of the fahsions of modern life. The only sure thing about the issues that concern these artists is that they are subject to continued and unavoidable change. Whether it is the latest musical sensation, the newest catwalk label or the glossy magazines, they are continually responding to the visual and cultural impact of these developments. Hilary Lloyd, Sylvie Fleury, Karen Kilimnik, Graham Dolphin, Ako Sasao, Jeremy Deller, the Bernadette Corporation and Regina Moller are amongst the artists whose work is shown.

Tessa Jackson leaves Arnolfini to become Director of the Scottish Arts Council. She is replaced by Caroline Collier, who leaves the De la Ware Pavilion in Bexhill on Sea having just completed a major renovation project of this modernist icon.

1999. You Can't Touch This

...a magnificent display of Trump-style decadence out of coloured cling-film What's On In London

John Frankland's dramatic transformation of the downstairs gallery plays with the notions of building development, as Arnolfini starts to look forward to its next refurbishment. His installation 'You Can't Touch This' elegantly suggests a plush lift lobby, the swanky reception of a top hotel or bank. It confuses our immediate perceptions of surface and space, and challenges assumptions of importnance and permanence. It gracefully parodies how institutions choose to present themselves.

1999. Cities On The Move, Hou Hanru and Hans-Ulrich Obrist, Hayward Gallery, London

No region in the world has gone through such profound and rapid economic and cultural change as Asia in the last decade. Torn between tradition and modernity, extreme poverty and supreme wealth, Asia's cities epitomise the concept of "urban chaos", responding constantly to technological innovations and economic challenges. This rapid growth is reflected in an anarchic proliferation of new cities in countries including China, Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand and Singapore.

The exhibition presents the Asian city as a force of disruption and an intense concentration of energy. Including the work of over 100 artists, architects and filmmakers, much of it unfamiliar to European public, exploring themes of communication, ecology, migration, speed, traffic, density, growth, boom and bust in a new global economy.

The exhibition has multiple itterations, in Vienna, Bordeaux, New York and Copenhagen before coming to London, and it mutated in each venue.

Hanru, Hou and Hans Ulrich Obrist (eds) (1997) Cities on the Move Ostfildern-Ruit, Hantje.

2000. Paul McCartney. Liam Gillick. Lie of the Land

For more than 17 years Paul McCartney has been a committed painter. Arnolfini hosts the launch of his new book Paintings, and McCartney comes to Arnolfini to discuss his paintings with Brian Clarke, and a selection of his work is hung in the downstairs gallery. The event makes the front page of the Daily Mail.

renovation filter: recent past and near future is Gillick's first solo show in an English institution, offering audiences the opportunity to esplore the subtle logic and riguour of Gillick's conceptual practice that falls between art, design, architecture, literature and politics. 'I am interested in art as provisional constructions that project a space where ideas can be reassessed', he says.

Lie of the Land offers a particular perspective upon a subject explored over a long period within Arnolfini's exhibitions and live programmes: the intimate and difficult relationship between human beings, the material world and the organic environment. Against a backdrop of the developing cultural and political impact of feminism and environmentalism, the exhibition spans a period in art pervaded by the influence of conceptualism and of lens and computer media.

2000. Javier de Frutos Dance Company. Bristol Poetry Festival

Javier de Frutos returns to Arnolfini with his company to present his latest work 'Montana's Winter', inspired by the life and work of Tennessee Williams. 'The way I am pushing the dancers is the way that Tennessee's world would push people - on the sexual, on the emotional, on the physical, on the extreme... Montana's Winter deals with the impossibility of relationships.'

Tom Paulin, Ralph Hoyte, Rosalyn Chissick, Glenn Carmichael and Evan Evans are amongst those who perform at Arnolfini as part of the Bristol Poetry Festival.

2000. Tate Modern, London

On the south bank of the River Thames opposite St Paul's Cathedral and the City of London, in a vast, abandoned, former electricity power station originally designed by the architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, Tate Modern opens. Swiss architects Herzog & De Meuron convert the building, the stunning former stunning turbine hall, 35 metres high and 152 metres long, becamomes a dramatic entrance, as well as a exhibition space for large installations and commissions. Former boiler houses, on three levels running the full length of the building, are converted into galleries.

A decade earlier it was clear that the Tate National Collection had outgrown the original Tate Gallery on Millbank, a new exhibition space was needed to display the growing international contemporary component of the Collection. For the first time London has a dedicated museum of modern art which, by attracting some five million visitors in the first year and generating an estimated 100m in economic benefits to London, initiates its very own 'museum effect'.

2001. Sequenced human genome released into public domain

"Biology is being transformed into an information science, able to take comprehensive global views of biological systems. With knowledge of all the components of the cells, we will be able to tackle biological problems at their most fundamental level." Francis S. Collins, leader of the Human Genome Project.

Often referred to as biologys moonshot, the rapid acceleration in the pace of DNA sequencing results in the compilation of the first working draft of more than 90 percent of the human genome. The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project to sequence the 3 billion DNA letters in the human genome, the 'software of life'. Following centuries of scientific tradition, and in keeping with the FLOSS ethic, all of the sequence data is deposited into public domain databases and made freely available to scientists around the world, with no restrictions on its use or redistribution.

The 'working draft' of the genome is finished and announced jointly by US president Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26.

2001. Wikipedia, popular pre-cursor of iCommons project

Hello world Jimmy Wales

Launched by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger on 15 January Wikipedia fuses a FLOSS ethic of open, free and distributed production with wiki software to devastating effect. Wiki's run on FLOSS software, support the collaboartive production and editing of pages, archive every edit and use the GPL to protect themselves and the content they enable from property restrictions. Wikipedia quickly dwarfs proprietory Encyclopedias, and expands to include 19 million articles in over two hundred languages, written by millions of registered users and countless anonymous contributors worldwide.

Wikipedia coordinates a range of common, public domain open-knowledge resources; in mapping, law, medicine, political economy and culture.

2001. War on Terror declared

On September 11th, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four commercial passenger airliners in the USA, two crash into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and thousands of those working in the buildings. Both towers collapsed within hours. A third crashes into the Pentagon, headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, and the fourth is brought down after passengers attempt to retake control in a field in rural Pennsylvania, enroute to Washington, D.C.

There were no survivors from any of the flights, and nearly 3,000 victims in total.

On October 7, The war on terror begins as U.S and British forces start aerial bombing campaigns against Taliban and Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, later ground troops are deployed.

2001. Para-Cities: Models for Public Spaces, Vito Acconci and the Acconci Studio. The Reading Room. Typographica, Rick Poynor

Recently influential American artist Vito Acconci has focused exclusively on architecture and the built environment, working with a team of architects, artists and engineers to design proposals for town squares, pedestrian malls and other public spaces. This exhibition of his recent work is installed in an environment designed by Acconci and his studio and includes architectural models, audio components, photographic materials, text panels and projected images.

The Reading Room is an opportunity to see Arnolfini's unique archive of artists' books which date from the present back to the 1970s. Also on view in the Reading Room will be selected publications from Book Works. Come and settle down with works by artists including Susan Hiller, Ed Ruscha, Inventory, Janice Kerbel, Nils Norman, Bruce Nauman, Liam Gillick, Richard Long and David Shrigley.

Herbert Spencers Typographica magazine was one of the most extraordinary visual arts publications of the 1960s. Its boundary-blurring investigation of modernist experimentation, typographic history, visual poetry and street photography anticipated many of the concerns of contemporary designers, artists and image makers. Rick Poynor, founder of Eye Magazine and author of Typographica, shows how this material fused to form a publication which became a work in its own right.

2001. Purchase of freehold of Bush House from Ivory Gate Ltd, 6.25m. Major redevelopment costs 5.75m

With the advent of the National Lottery, Arnolfini has another opportunity to purchase Bush House, (long since sold by JT - when?) cashing in 2m of its endowment in order to raise the match funding required by Lottery awards. The purchase will enable Arnolfini to expand its gallery spaces across a third floor, and provide an income stream from the letting of the upper floors. Redevelopment and purchase costs are 12m. MORE....

2001. Web 2.0, peer 2 peer networks

Peer-to-peer (P2P) networking is a system architecture that distributes resouces to, or enables contributions from, each node on the network. Each node is equally privileged, a peer. In contrast to the traditional broadcast - reciever, or server - client model of social organisation where only broadcasters or servers supply, and reciervers and clients consume, peers are able to both, equally.

Peer-to-peer ecologies are popularised in digital file sharing systems and open knowledge projects like wikipedia, although the technologies are not restricted to digital environments, peer-to-peer dynamics facilitate multiple social processes including financial micro-loans, blood-banks, coperative building projects, educational initiatives, time-banks, and much more besides.

2001. Almost Cover to Cover, Michael Snow. First Inbetween Time Festival

Michael Snow is a cult figure for many with an interest in film, photography or conceptual art. He is perhaps best known for Wavelength (1967), one of the most influential experimental films ever made. Snows primary concern is with perception, which is evident in the enormous variety of his production, including painting, photography, sculpture, installation and music. Serious consideration of this work, long overdue in Britain, is now timely given the surge of renewed interest in time-based work, cross-art-form exploration, narrative and the nature of film. The show focuses on the filmic aspects of Snows work, while giving an overview of his artistic practice since the 1960s. The exhibition brings together seminal historic pieces such as Authorization and Venetian Blind with selected recent works made especially for this project. There will be a rare opportunity to see large-scale, early sculptures, and paintings from the 1960s including works from Snows famous Walking Woman series. Keys works will also be shown at Station, Phoenix Wharf (open every weekend) and Bristol Industrial Museum.

Arnolfini presents its first festival of live art and sound, a packed weekend of experimentation and entertainment exploring the chemistry, mystery and pure anarchy of live art. Performances at Arnolfini, the Wickham Theatre, the Cube and other sites around the city of Bristol over four days of action, performance, publication, installation, intervention, film and sound.

Highlights include Quizoola! by Forced Entertainment, a comic interrogation composed of 2000 questions; The Ball Show by Markus and Seppo Renvall, in which hundreds of mirror balls turn home movies and CCTV into dazzling projections; Film by Uninvited Guests, a live reconstruction of ill-remembered movie scenes in a world where film is banned; and SET by Plane Performance, an un-English reworking of Brief Encounter.

2001. Enron, seventh largest global corporation, declared bankrupt after derivative trading fraud

America's Most Innovative Company Fortune Magazine

On November 8th, the seventh largest global corporation publicly admit to having overstated earnings, and to having created hidden 'ofshore' limited partnerships to hide $3 billion of losses and debt. Investors lose confidence and Enron stock, which had been worth $90 per share in 2000, plummets to less than $1. The company is bankrupt.

Enron Corporation started as a gas pipeline provider in Houston, Texas, and encouraged by financial derregulation, evolved into an energy-broker that traded supply and futures of gas, electricity, water, broadband Internet services, and other commodities. Enron, whose corporate strategy was to be light in assets but heavy in innovation, became hyper-successful, employing 21,000 people in more than 40 countries.

Thousands of employees loose their jobs, their retirement savings, and pension funds, investors and lenders lose millions of dollars through defaults on loans.

Gibney, Alex (2005) Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room Jigsaw Productions,

2001. Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, Las Vegas

The Guggenheim Hermitage Museum opens, it is a partnership between the Guggenheim Foundation and the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Their distinctive mission is to present works from the permanent collections of both institutions, which together trace the trajectory of art from prehistoric times to the present.

Designed by Rem Koolhaas/Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), Rotterdam, the exterior facade and interior gallery walls are made of Cor-Ten steel, producing a 560-square-meter exhibition space. Paintings are hung on the steel wall surfaces by means of a sophisticated series of magnets, the first exhibition is Masterpieces and Master Collectors: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings from the Hermitage and Guggenheim Museums.

A feasibility study is under way for Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in Vilnius, Lithuania, designed by architect Zaha Hadid.

2001. Guggenheim Las Vegas

Opening simultaneously with the Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, installed at the The Venetian Resort-Hotel-Casino and managed by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is the Guggenheim Las Vegas. Its to present special exhibitions, ranging from contemporary painting and sculpture, to architecture and design, and new-media art works.

Also designed by Rem Koolhaas the 63,700-square-foot exhibition space, opens with The Art of the Motorcycle, with more than 130 motorcycles on display. The exhibition is designed by Frank Gehry, Gehry's building-within-a-building features enormous, curved polished stainless steel walls, towering chain-link curtains, and glass floors and partitions.

2001. Battle of Orgreave, Jeremy Deller, Orgreave

On a sloping field on the edge of a village in Orgreave, South Yorkshire, England, hundreds of people are shouting. There are charges, chanting, the throwing of surrogate stones, skirmishes, dogs are used and people are apparently arrested. The confrontation gets very violent, a terrifying battle rages, cars are overturned and on fire, mounted police gallop down the road followed by a hail of thrown rocks and debris, beautifully choreographed violence leaves bloodied and injured men scattered along the road.

Twenty years ago, during the miners strike, 4000 miners from across the UK tried to stop coal being delivered to a coke works and were confronted by a force of 3000 police brought in by the government to ensure delivery. The pitched battle that ensued was one of the most bitter of an already desperate struggle between the remnants of unionized labour and a government determined to introduce deregulated markets as a disciplinary force.

Jeremy Dellers The English Civil War Part II, colloquially known as the Battle of Orgreave recreates this defining moment for a de-industrialised Britain, and in so doing fuses some of the legacies of institutional critique with artworks that engage directly in social processes.

Cummings, Neil (2006) A Shadow of Marx chapter in a Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945 (ed) Prof. Amelia Jones. London, Blackwell.

2002. Population of Bristol: 400,000


2002. Shimmering Substance. The Multiple Store. Listen to Britain, Victor Burgin. Dance Live!

Co-curated by Barry Schwabsky and Catsou Roberts, Shimmering Substance is an international group exhibition investigating the substance of art; its physical properties, surface and material quality. This is the first in a series of shows exploring the practice of painting. The title Shimmering Substance is taken from a 1946 painting by the American artist Jackson Pollock. Like the following show, which focuses on image and the picturesque, Shimmering Substance investigates properties particularly associated with painting but also includes work in a variety of media. Shimmering Substance is an exhibition about the ecstasy of matter, which is expressed not just in paint, but in the water, foam, clay, glass, and glitter present in the exhibition.

Between June and December a changing display of new, limited edition multiples will be sited in the bookshop. All the artworks are commissions from The Multiple Store, an independent company set up in 1998 to provide new opportunities for emerging and established artists; and to encourage new collectors of high quality contemporary art at affordable prices.

Victor Burgin's work has stimulated critical debate about photography and the moving image. His early work explored relations between image and text, first using photography, then video. Today, Burgin combines both media to produce spectacular projections that examine relations between personal and social history. This solo show, coinciding with Burgins return to Britain after 13 years in the US, is his first in a UK gallery since 1986, when he was nominated for the Turner Prize. A new work, Listen to Britain, is presented along with a selection of older works.

Are you dancing? Were asking Dance Live! Bristol is an opportunity for residents of Bristol and visitors to the city of all ages and abilities, to enjoy and participate in a month-long celebration of dance. Salsa with the penguins at Bristol Zoo, watch the cyclists dancing in the Lloyds Amphitheatre, boogie in Broadmead, and see your favourite dance films at Arnolfini.

2003. Jonathan Monk. Recognition: Part One, Anna Barriball and David Musgrave

Jonathan Monk generates a humorous brand of conceptualism. His work, such as his film versions of well-known art books, or his re-enactments of seminal images by post-war artists, are a gentle poke at the Modernist canon and an attempt to demystify the creative process. Nostalgia and romanticism also play a strong role in Monks practice as the artist draws on his own history, incorporating snap shots and mementos from the family archive. He works with a range of media, including film, sculpture, video, photography, installation and performance. While Monk has exhibited extensively across Europe and the United States, he remains largely unknown in the UK. This is his first major solo exhibition in England.

David Musgrave and Anna Barriball share an interest in drawing, but use this means of working in different ways. Their modest approach to art-making involves the use of diverse media, including graphite, perspex and light, and it results in work that is minimally present; the quiet product of intensive labour. David Musgraves anthropomorphic forms tantalise our desire to find the human in what we see. They often result from a process of visual translation: a figure made in tape is deformed and then rendered in paint; putty becomes photocopy, becomes biro marks. Anna Barriballs drawings arise from interactions with everyday objects, from kitchen tables to rubber balls, in which she uses drawing as a form of physical communication. Her dialogues result in works that question the objects that surround us whilst making previously ignored histories recognisable.

2003. First Frieze Art Fair, London

With a faint echo of the Great Exhibition, the publishers of Frieze magazine, Amanda Sharp and Matthew Slotover, and part funded by the European Unions Culture 2000 programme and Arts Council, England, open the four-day Frieze Art Fair in a temporary bespoke structure designed by architect David Adjaye in Regents Park London. It features over 124 of the most exciting contemporary art galleries in the world, attracts over 27,000 visitors, and reports sales of 20 million.

Frieze differentiates itself from other art fairs through the Frieze Foundation, which oversees: Frieze Talks, a programme of panel discussions and lectures; Frieze Projects, a curated programme of site-specific projects by artists in and around the fair, Frieze Music, Frieze Education and Frieze Film.

2004. Wonderful: Visions of the Near Future

A major new project presented during Bush House's closure during Arnolfini's refurbishment, Wonderful emerges from the discussions and realisations of artists and scientists working together collaboratively. The project strands explore the languages and assumptions of art and science and look at what happens when these research interests fuse. Rather than addressing science fiction utopias and dystopias, Wonderful presents visions of the future as it may be in five, ten or thirty years because it is informed by todays developments. Wonderful investigates science within a broad cultural and philosophical framework, inviting visitors to consider their own position in relation to ethical issues emerging from current developments in technology and scientific research.

2005. Arnolfni reopens after refurbishment. Caroline Collier is replaced by Tom Trevor as Director. This Storm is What we Call Progress

This show marks a moment for the building and Arnolfini. Its a celebration and a commemoration and we chose and installed the works in a way that was very specific to the new spaces. One of the things I really like about this show is that the building itself is integrated into the heart of it. Martin Clark, Curator, Exhibitions.

The title comes from writer Walter Benjamins response to a small painting by Paul Klee. Writing about this painting, Benjamin conjures up the image of the Angel of History. For him this figure symbolizes the inevitable and irrepressible drive of progress, the storm in which we are all caught up. This storm propels us blindly forward and leaves a traumatic and cataclysmic wreckage in its wake.

This first exhibition upon Arnolfinis reopening explores themes of progress, history, memory and loss. It includes paintings, photography, drawings, installations, film, video and sculpture, many of which have never been seen in the UK before. The exhibition asks how, why and what we remember. Invoking ghosts, spectres, phantoms and angels, these works explore our complex relationship to the past as well as our responsibility to the present.


2005. Starting at Zero, Black Mountain College

Black Mountain College was one of the most exciting experiments in the arts, education and community of the 20th century.

Starting at Zero: Black Mountain College 1933-57 is the first UK exhibition on this subject. It traces the emergence and flourishing of avant-garde art in post-war America, when many now well-known artists, composers, dancers and writers gathered at the college.

2006. It Is You Mark Titchner. Lecture: A Rough Guide to... Linguistics. Becks Futures. British Art Show 6. Material City, Situations

Mark Titchner presents a survey of work from the last 10 years alongside two new commissions produced for Arnolfini. On the evidence of this exhibition the artist is nominated for the Turner Prize.

Led by artist and curator Mark Beasley, A Rough Guide to... Linguistics is a study day examining the role that artists play in the development and deconstruction of the written and spoken word.

The influential five yearly survey of British art, the British Art Show 6 opens at Baltic, Gateshead, before travelling to Manchester, Nottingham and Bristol. The exhibition, curated by Alex Farquharson and Andrea Schlieker, is presented at Arnolfini and various other sites throughout Bristol.

Material City is programme of interdisciplinary conversations and fieldwork led by Situations in partnership with Arnolfini and the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Bristol. The programme includes performance-lectures, conversations, symposia and screenings.

2006. Enthusiasm, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London

The Whitechapel gallery is transformed into three lush cinemas entitled Love, Longing and Labour, a 1970's Polish film-club house and archive lounge are installed in an exhibition that explores the idea of Enthusiasm. The amateur, the enthusiast or the hobbyist works invisibly within the relentless flow of official culture, frequently adopting a counter-cultural tone of tactical resistance and criticism. In Poland under socialism even leisure was organised through factory-sponsored associations, and yet the film-makers represented in the exhibition create films of love, criticism and freedom. In a moment of relentless professionalisation and calculated productivity, enthusiasm offers some momentary hope.

Cummings, Neil and Marysia Lewandowska (ed) (2005) Enthusiasm, Films of Love, Longing and Labour London, Whitechapel Art Gallery

2007. The derivatives market is $516 tn annually, ten times world GDP

The Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity, published by the Bank of International Settlement (BIS) suggests that $3.2 trillion is traded daily in global foreign exchange markets. Growth in turnover is broad-based across all instruments, although especially in foreign exchange swaps, which rose 80% compared with 45% over the previous three-year period. Notional amounts outstanding went up by 135% to $516 trillion at the end of June.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) calculate an aggregate value of all goods and services produced globally (GDP) at $60,587,016. Volumes on one of the big five financial markets, Foreign Exchange, dwarfs the annual production of all material goods on the planet.

2007. Molecular reproduction. Stem-cell bank

The British Stem Cell Bank is established to provide a repository of human embryonic, foetal and adult stem cell lines for research. Its role is to provide quality controlled stocks of these cells, and also ready to prepare stocks of clinical grade cell lines as seed stocks for the development of therapies.

In order to avoid conflicts of interest, the Code of Practice developed by the Steering Committee specifically states that the Bank will not conduct discovery research on stem cell lines deposited in the Bank. This is interpreted as requiring the Bank to avoid research in basic molecular reproduction and "near-market" commercial research.

2007 . Port City: On Mobility and Exchange. Manuel Vason. The Ghost of Songs

To coincide with the 200th anniversary of the parliamentary abolition of the slave trade in Britain, Port City: On Mobility and Exchange consists of an exhibition, off site projects and a programme of talks, symposia, performance, music, walks, film and literature. Port City" explores the port city as an interface between a physical home-land, the place where workers and consumers reside, and the non-place of global capitalism.

Encounters is an exhibition of photography by Manuel Vason, where the body is heightened as a means of expression. Theatrical-style lighting and a red carpet walkway around the gallery emphasise the experience of looking as a performance in itself. Collaborating artists include Franko B, Kira O'Reilly, Stuart Brisley, Miguel Pereira and Ron Athey.

The Ghosts of Songs, is curated and produced by Kodwo Eshun and Anjalika Sagar of The Otolith Group, it is the first exhibition devoted to the work of the Black Audio Film Collective (BAFC). Until the collective dissolved in 1998, BAFC produced internationally acclaimed, award winning films, photographs, slide works, videos, installations, posters and interventions. The space is divided into screening chambers designed by Adjaye Associates.

2007. Recording Iraq Ken Stanton Archive. Free Noise

In 2003, just before the coalition invasion of Iraq, independent film producer Michael Burke purchased satellite time from the news agency Reuters and made an open request for video recordings during the first weeks of the ensuing war. As the conflict continued Burke traveled to Iraq meeting contacts and establishing a network of paid and volunteer sources. Ken Stanton Archive (KSA) followed the development of this archive and Recording Iraq presents over 200 hours of unedited footage - recordings made by civilians, human-shields, doctors, aid workers and photojournalists as a rolling programme of projected video and as a searchable archive on computer. Displayed alongside are tape logs; a newspaper archive; notes from translation and a transcript based on recorded interviews with Burke.

Free Noise is a first-time Arnolfini collaboration with music programmers Qu Junktions, featuring major names from the noise and free jazz scenes on both sides of the Atlantic. Over two sets, and through a series of improvised combinations, these two unorthodox musics converge. The line up includes Evan Parker, who performed with the Music Improvisation Company in April 1970 at the first Arnolfini music event to be held at Queen Sq, Paul Hession, Yellow Swans, John Weise, C. Spencer Yeh, Metalux, John Edwards and Culver.

2007. Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, Las Vegas, closes

After seven years the Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in the Venetian Hotel closed its doors on May 11th. Thomas Krens steps down as the Guggenheim Foundation director, although continues with the Foundation as the Senior Advisor for International Affairs, developing and overseeing all aspects of the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, its largest and most complex project to date. Krens had overseen the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, the Guggenheim Bilbao in Spain, the Deutsche Guggenheim in Berlin, Germany, and the Guggenheim Hermitage Museum in Las Vegas.

Guggenheim Las Vegas had already closed, after only 15 months citing lack of funds and low attendance. Its only show was The Art of the Motorcycle.

2008. Hedge fund consortium pay $50m for Damian Hirsts For the Love of God

Enormous sums, especially for contemporary art, have invaded this tiny market from investors disillusioned with the far slower returns on the stock markets. They have pushed some artist prices to previously unimagined heights. Oliver Barker, Sotheby's

Artist Damien Hirst's For the Love of God a life-size cast of a human skull in platinum, covered entirely by 8,601 flawless pav-set diamonds, is on exhibition for sale in the White Cube Gallery, London. The published $50m price tag is apparently met by an anonymous Hedge Fund consortium, Hirst himself is a member of the consortium.

2008. 20-year debt bubble bursts with threat of systemic global financial collapse. Markets rescued by massive state injection of public funds

The twenty year house price bubble peaked in 2006 and then began a steep decline, refinancing mortgages became more difficult and defaults soared. Securities backed with mortgages, collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) including subprime mortgages, and their evolution into (CDOs) and other extensions of debt by financial instruments, lose most of their value. In fact, there are no mechanisms to value them.

In August, financial institutions around the globe write down their holdings of subprime related securities by $501 billion. These losses wipe out much of the capital of the world banking system, which impacts on the money markets. With no liquidity, the credit freeze brings the global financial system suddenly, to a hault. Governments are forced to intervene. Two giant Savings and Loan banks in the USA, Fannie Mae (FNM) and Freddie Mac (FRE) were both taken into government ownership, the investment bank Lehman Brothers declares itself bankrupt, with public 'sweeteners' Bank of America agrees to purchase Merrill Lynch, and American International Group (AIG) is saved by an $85 billion government capital injection and Northern Rock is nationalized at an estimated cost of 27 billion.

USA's Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, and other central banks purchase US$2.5 trillion of 'toxic' private assets and place them in quarantine. This is the largest injection of public money into the financial markets in world history. And its not over, as contracts and obligations unwind the International Monetary Fund estimate losses are expected to top $2.8 trillion in 2009 and cumulative losses globally would exceed $4 trillion.

2008. Persepolis Michael Stevenson. Far West. Semiconductor: Brilliant Noise. Goat Island perform The Lastmaker

Persepolis 2530,Stevenson's exhibition at Arnolfini, revisits the site of an infamous week-long party held in 1971 by the Shah of Iran amongst the ruins of the ancient Persian city of Persepolis. Reconstructing part of the temporary architecture built for the celebrations (itself now a ruin) Stevenson looks at this pivotal moment in Iranian history which led towards the subsequent cultural revolution.

Far West is an experimental project that transforms Arnolfini from an arts venue into a distinctive concept store, exploring the shifting of the economic centre of the world to the East. The Far West concept store provides customers with the experience of interacting with, producing, and then purchasing, a selection of specially branded products, designed by artists or inspired by artists projects from ornaments to music, comics, food, toys, and artworks.

Semiconductor's stunning new sound and video installation investigates our perception of the natural world. During a five-month fellowship at NASAs Space Sciences Laboratory, Ruth Jarman and Joe Gerhardt explored the techniques, materials and philosophies used by scientists to discover near-space.

After 20 years of creating challenging and highly acclaimed performance, much of which has appeared at Arnolfini, The Lastmaker is Goat Islands ninth and final piece, a fitting conclusion to the companys journey. The performance is structured around the form and iconography of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a site that has been a Byzantine church, a Mosque and a museum over its history.

2008. Lehman Bros., the largest global financial institution, fails. Global credit crisis

The collapse of the 158 year old Lehman Brothers is the biggest corporate default in history. Lehman incur unprecedented losses in the continuing subprime mortgage crisis, in the second fiscal quarter they report losses of $2.8 billion and are forced to liquidate $6 billion in assets. As a consequence, their stock looses 73% of its value as the credit markets tighten, rumours of a buyer (the Korea Development Bank) rallies the markets evaluation, but the deal falls through, and Lehman's shares plunge once again to $7.79.

Investor confidence continues to erode, the Dow Jones slides 300 points, and although "too big to fail" the U.S. government declines to assist the struggling Lehman's. On September 15, they file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection following the massive exodus of most of their clients, drastic stock losses, and devaluation of its assets by the credit rating agencies.

2008. Many banks taken into public ownership

As the contagion from arcane debt instruments spreads, most large British banks also known as universal banks are implicated through complex debt-linked instruments which recklessly increased exposures. As a result, some British banks including Barclays and HSBC, obtain generous funding from the Bank of Englands special liquidity scheme to stay afloat during the crisis. And, as of October, the British taxpayer has the following investments in four banks:
Northern Rock, 100%, 20 billion
Bradford and Bingley, 100%, 37 billion
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) 84%, 45.5 billion
Lloyds Banking Group, 41%, 20.3 billion

2008. Museum Futures, Moderna Museet, Stockholm

On the occasion of its 50th anniversary, Moderna Museet Stockholm, Sweden, commission a series of special artists projects. Concerned that the celebration was a task of mourning, artists Neil Cummings and Marysia Lewandowska imagine it is the Museums centenary. Museum Futures: Distributed - is a machinima record of the centenary interview with Moderna Museets executive Ayan Lindquist in June 2058. It explores a genealogy for contemporary art practice and its institutions, by re-imagining the role of artists, museums, galleries, markets, manufactories and academies.

2008. Plug In, Charles Esche, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven

Conceived by Christiane Berndes and Director Charles Esche, Plug In aims to re-imagine the collection of Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven. The collection consists of almost 3,000 art works, and for 8 months they will be shuffled, curated, re-installed and re-animated through a series of independent, unitary exhibitions in the galleries, each representing a specific episode of Plug In.

Artists and guest curators are invited to participate. Plug In refers to the modular structure of the series of presentations, and also an invitation to the visitor to 'plug in' according to a self-initiated route through the museum, and their imagination.

2008. Christies Auction House buys a commercial gallery, triggering the collapse of the historic division between the primary and secondary art market

Defying classical economic theory, historically, the art market has two distinct parts. The primary market offers artwork as they emerge from artists studios, that is, they are for sale for the first time. Access to the primary market is via gallerists who understand, nurture, exhibit and represent artists and artworks. The secondary market, by contrast, involves the resale of art objects, either through private dealers or auction houses. This maket has very little interest in artists, and high prices, aquisitions, investment and profit are an end in themselves. Prices in one, are routinely half that of the other.

This historic division collapses when secondary market giant Christie's auction house, buys 'blue-chip' primary market gallery, Haunch of Venison in London. The two monopolists of the secondary market, Sotheby's and Christie's have taken very different approaches to market consolidation. While Christie's acquired Haunch of Venison, Sotheby's negotiated a 'primary auction', Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, which sold work by Damien Hirst straight out of his studio for record-breaking prices, just as Lehman Brothers implode.

2009. Iceland bankrupt. Largest national default

In early October, Iceland nationalises its three largest banks which are defaulting on $62 billion of foreign debt. At the height of the global debt bubble the banks accessed $100 billion in debt to finance foreign acquisitions. When the global credit crisis throttles lending, the country is unable to service the debt repayments, foreign investors flea Icelandic bonds, prompting the value of its currency, the krona, to drop 50% in one week. The four international credit rating agencies which monitor Iceland's sovereign debt all lowered their ratings. The country is effectively bankrupt.

A $10 billion bailout from the IMF keeps Iceland's finances afloat.

2009. Angus Fairhurst. Futurology Season: The Good Life, Tommy Stockel, Sequelism: Part 3. Platform, C Words; Carbon, Climate, Capital and Culture. Craftvisism

Arnolfini presents a retrospective exhibition of Angus Fairhurst (1966-2008), one of the most influential, challenging and thoughtful members of the Freeze group of Young British Artists (YBAs).

Futurology is a research and exhibition programme exploring visions of the future. More broadly, it is a cultural investigation into how representations of the future affect the present. The Futurology exhibition programme at Arnolfini starts with THE GOOD LIFE (Ronny Heiremans & Katleen Vermeir), continues with Tommy Stckel's Art of Tomorrow and finishes with Sequelism Pt. 3.

The artist/activist group PLATFORM present C Words, a two-month collaborative investigation into issues around climate change and social justice. C Words is part of Arnolfinis 100 Days programme, marking the countdown to the 15th UN Conference of the Parties on Climate Change in Copenhagen on 7 December, and is part of the Artist/Activist season. Also part of Artist/Activist is the exhibition Craftivism, consisting of projects developed by artists and collectives that work with craft-based traditions and activist practices to question and disrupt the prevailing codes of mass consumerism. Craftivism is an Arnolfini/Relational project.

2010. WikiLeaks. Bifurcation of information into dark-pools and the public domain

WikiLeaks is a non-profit organization dedicated to sharing information in public. Using distributed funding and organisational structures, and a FLOSS ethos that 'information wants to be free' they provide an innovative, secure and anonymous way for independent sources around the world to contribute information to the public domain.

Although launched in 2006, Wikileaks came of age in July when they released Afghan War Diary, a compilation of more than 76,900 'secret' documents about the war in Afghanistan. In October, they released almost 400,000 documents entitled the Iraq War Logs, a cache of previously secret US military field reports of the war in Iraq, and in November, WikiLeaks began releasing U.S. State department diplomatic cables. The radical transparency and accountibility encouraged by peer to peer networks throws into contrast the dark-pool practices of many governments, and apparently public organisations.

2010. Otto Zitko and Louise Bourgeois, Old Media Season: Fun With Software. Kerry Tribe, Dead Star Light

Me Myself and I brings together Otto Zitkos expansive wall drawing intervention, made in situ by the artist in the central circulation areas of Arnolfini; and a set of intensely personal, psychologically charged drawings by Louise Bourgeois entitled JE TAIME (2005). Before the end of the exhibition, Louise Bourgeois dies of heart failure aged 98.

The Old Media season at Arnolfini includes a series of exhibitions along with film screenings, events and performance. The season focuses, from various perspectives, on investigating old and new technologies and their relationship to time, as well as their role within art and culture. Old Media includes Fun with Software, curated by Olga Goriunova, which looks at the history of software, and its relation to humour and fun.

Kerry Tribes solo exhibition Dead Star Light continues the artists philosophical enquiry into memory, subjectivity and doubt. In Dead Star Light, which includes three new commissions along with a selection of existing works, Tribe structurally engages in with different media including 16mm film, reel-to-reel audio, and video.

2010. Procesos de Archivo, research project Intermediae, Madrid

Intermedi is an experimental programme for contemporary creative practice developed by the Cultural Department of the City Government of Madrid. Intermediae is a process, through which they are constructing an immanent institution. They have evolved three structural axes: creation as a means for research and production, process for continual experimentation and reflection, and participation as a commitment to their publics.

Procesos de archivo is a reflection on, and a set of artistic projects that explore the construction of an archive of Intermedi's activities. A radical, real-time and generative archive of an institution conceived as process, and committed to participation.

2011. Fourth Inbetween Time Festival, Self Portrait: Arnolfini. Cosima von Bonin. Magical Consciousness. Museum Show

Since 'spinning off' to become an independent production company, 'Inbetween Time Festival of Live Art and Intrigue' returns to Arnolfini after a hiatus of nearly five years. Over 75 events involving 130 artists make up a programme of live art, dance and theatre works.

Arnolfini begins its 50th anniversary programme, investigating the philosophical notion of 'The Apparatus'. The programme focuses on the conditions of the art world today, particularly its systems of belief and valuation, its role wthin society, and its relationahip to the wider political economy. 'The Apparatus' is about the 'makings of' artists, of artworks, of institutions, and of a culture infrastructure. Major exhibitions include the first solo exhibition in the UK of work by Cosima von Bonin, the group exhibition 'Magical Consciousness' co-curated with the artist Runa Islam, 'The Sea Wall: Haegue Yang with Felix Gonzalez-Torres', and the major historical survey exhibition 'Museum Show'.

Artist-in-Residence Neil Cummings undertakes a year-long project entitled "Self Portrait: Arnolfini" a series of 'data portraits' of the organisation developed in response to the archived past, living present, and projected futures of Arnolfini.

2011. Lehman Bros., art collection sold at auction to repay creditors

Almost three years after Lehman Brothers became the biggest victim of the financial crisis. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) has appointed Christie's to hold an auction of the company's prestigious art collection in an effort to repay its army of creditors.

Works by Gary Hume, Lucian Freud and ironically Andreas Gursky's photograph of the New York Mercantile Exchange will be offered for sale. PWC expects to raise around 2m from the fire-sale auction, a small dent in the estimated $22bn being sought by Lehman's European creditors.

2011. Haegue Yang and Felix Gonzalez-Torres. M-Shed opens

Conceived as a conversation between the work of Felix Gonzalez-Torres and Haegue Yang is the exhibition The Sea Wall. Gonzalez-Torres work Untitled (Water), from 1995 is an iridescent blue beaded curtain presented throughout the galleries, interspersed with a selection of artworks by Yang from the last ten years. The exhibition is titled after the novel The Sea Wall by writer Marguerite Duras, which recounts her growing up in colonial-era French Indochina during the 1930s.

In June, the M Shed opens on the dockside in the building that previously housed Bristols Industrial Museum. A grant of 10.27 million was obtained from the National Lottery, contributing to the estimated 25 million development, it is managed by Bristol City Council, to tell the story of Bristol, from prehistoric times to the present day.

2011. Bond vigilantes in Sovereign Debt markets trigger tighter financial market oversight

In April, the rating attributed to Greek debt was decreased to the first levels of 'junk' status by credit rating agency Standard & Poor's amidst fears of default by the Greek government. Governments servicing their borrowing in the sovereign debt markets, are coming under systematic and sustained attack by bond market vigilantes. These vigilantes disagree with the monetary or fiscal policies of the elected governments, - usually welfare and public infrastructure provision, although lately bank bail-outs account for much of the borrowing - and in protest short-sell bonds, driving up the cost of borrowing. Returns on Greeces 5-year bonds (notes) have been jacked-up 280-basis points higher to 6.35%, and are now sufficiently high enough to choke its economy, causing enormous social unrest. In turn, Ireland, Portugal, Dubai, Italy, Japan, Spain and Britain are all subject to 'market restraint. in a struggle for power through finance.

The European Central Bank (ECB) intervene in the short term with a $700 billion loan from the Troubled Asset Relief Program. And in the longer term by introducing restrictions on currency derivatives trades, including non-deliverable currency forwards, cross-currency swaps and forwards. New ratios are imposed on financial institutions, there is a limit on currency forwards and derivatives positions at 20% of their equity capital, to restrain destructive shorting. 150 years of financial markets unrestrained by social responsibility, where profit is privatised and risk socialised, is finally reined-in.

2011. Guggenheim Second-Life, paywall experiment

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation commissions the New York architects Autostrade to design and implement a new Guggenheim Second-Life. This is the first phase of a three-year initiative to construct a navigable three-dimensional spatial entity accessible on-line as well as real-time interactive components installed at the various Guggenheim locations. Typical museum services, exhibitions, talks, events archives, collections, and commerce, and its objects, spaces, and buildings can now be constructed, navigated, experienced, and manipulated through a paywall protected, global network.

2012. Jim Shaw. Alighiero e Boetti. Gob Squad. In Absentia, Damien Hirst

Jim Shaw's solo exhibition is his first major survey exhibition in Britain. Developed semi-collaboratively with the Baltic, Gateshead, the exhibition entitled "Kill Your Idols" focuses on his extensive series of dream drawings as well as a new installation about freemasonry. The accompanying music programme sees the reunion of his proto-punk band Destroy All Monsters.

The small presentation of framed artworks by Alighiero e Boetti, consisting mainly of his "mappa" drawing studies includes a rare exhibition of his very last drawing made before his death in 1994.

Anglo-German performance troupe Gob Squad return to Bristol for a live-film event based on the premise of reimaging the John Carpenter film Escape From New York as if it had taken place in Bristol.

"In Absentia: Damien Hirst" is an experimental monographic exhibition about the artist Damien Hirst that doesn't include the work of Hirst. An expansive collection of artworks, artefacts and "evidence" are brought together, to investigate the practice, persona, career and media phenomenon, Damien Hirst. Hirst has commented "I never thought I could be so interesting."

2012. Banking conglomerates are de-merged into Retail social banks, and investment banks for financial speculation

In September, after years of research a bill passes through Parliament legislating structural reform of the British banking sector and regulatory reform of the excessive risk-taking by large financial institutions. There are two main clauses in the act:

i) structural reform of the banking sector, involving a breaking up of the largest 'universal' banking groups;
ii) a separation, of the investment and speculative operations of banks from their retail deposit taking operations, thereby insulating the banks retail (social) business from its much riskier investment banking operations.

In November The Financial Services Authority (FSA) and Bank of England oversees

1. Bank regulatory capital is increased from the current Basel III level of seven per cent of risk-based assets to twenty per cent of risk-based assets, (this is to dampen speculation)
2. Banks engaging in retail deposit taking in the UK would be required to operate through a separately capitalised subsidiary whose capital would be more or less ring-fenced from the rest of the banking group.

The laws also apply to foreign banks trading through London markets.

2012. Foundation of the Multitude, a global civil society coalition: Article 31 Declaration of Human Rights, Free access to information, Knowledge and Culture

Dissafected by national representational democracy, inspired by the distibuted assemblies of Spain's 15M movement a broad coalition of 233,000 social enterprises and Non Government Organisations (NGO's) from over 47 countries, network into the Multitude. They develop infrastructural protocols for local governance and administration, including experiments with real-time dissensus and resource management.

In October the Multitude lobbies the United Nations to ammend to Declaration of Human Rights, and a year later Article 31: Free access to information, Knowledge and Culture, is added. Article 31 enshrines the freedom of everyone to participate in the cultural life of the community, by specifying intellectual freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of access to knowledge, information and culture and the compliance with the principle of ideological, political and religious neutrality.

Benkler (2006) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and freedom Yale Press

2013. iCommons, knowledge and cultural meshwork, precursor to Composite

Initiate by the Multitude, protected by GPL v.4 and encouraged by article 31 of the UNDHR the iCommons begins as an index of all resources currently in the public domain.

Traditionally defined as elements of the environment, forests, air, rivers, fisheries and grazing land, to these are added the so called cultural commons; text and images either still or moving; artefacts, systems and processes; music and sound either as source or assembled; all embedded plant, animal and bodily knowledge; public research in science and medicine, and all possible ecologies of these resources.

Aggregated by the viral heart of GPL v.4; open educational intiatives, Free Universities, open law and medical research, systems design research, open access publishing and free culture communities around the world are able to share, and contribute to a pool of collecive resource. Creativity is nurtured and challenged on a scale unimagined since the 1960s Appollo space programme.

2013. Anarchitecture. Olivier Plender. Theatre of Mistakes. Critical Practice

Named after an artwork by Gordon Matta the group exhibition "Anarchitecture" considers artistic practices that offer experimental and playful perspectives on architecture. With the aid of artist and "experimental conspiracy theorist" Peter Fend, the exhibition remodels both the interior and the exterior of the Arnolfini, and provides a plunge pool viewing space for an underwater 'dockside' gallery.

Berlin-based artist Olivia Plender presents a major survey of her research based projects, ino alternative belief and social organisational structures, from the last 15 years. Plender has been shortlisted for the Tuner Prize.

Theatre of Mistakes were a seminal performance art company based in London during the 1970s and 80s. This performance season considers their conceptual practice afresh though the interpretations of an international selection of artists.

Critical Practice, a cluster of individual artists, researchers, academics and others, have a year-long residency jointly resourced by the Free University of the West of England to create an exhibitionary "think-tank" to consider the evolution of "the social contract".

2013. Auction franchises land grab commerical art galleries in art market shake-out

As the world recalibrates its financial systems the two monopolists of the secondary art market Sotheby's and Christie's along with China's emerging Bonhams franchise, report a steep growth curve in their business. Bouyed by 'new' market liquidity from China and Brazil and a strong auction commission margin of 18.3%, Sotheby's for example, is able to report consolidated sales of $6.8 billion, a remarkable increase of $2.0 billion, or 74% the over the previous year.

As traditional vehicles and reservoirs for wealth appear unreliable, contemporary art continues to grow both in appeal and demand. In every region in which they operate, North America, Europe and Asia, aggregate auction sales are up, and they continue to strengthen relationships with key global clients, especially the Gagosian, White Cube, Haser & Wirth and Frieze franchises.

2013. 60% of global population live in a metropolis

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN General Assembly observe a global tipping point when they estimate that 58.7% of the world population live in cities.

2013. Transaction Tax. Resource flow from financial transactions to public domain resources

Speculators may do no harm as bubbles on a steady stream of enterprise. But the situation is serious when enterprise becomes the bubble on a whirlpool of speculation. J.M Liang

After years of debate, the G31 nations and an IMF report entitled A Fair and Substantial Contribution by the Financial Sector, the 1972 Tobin tax is reanimated by the IMF and major market regulators as an incrumental micro-tax on every financial transaction. It has two expressed purposes.

The first, is to curbe the volatility of high-volume short-term speculative trading.
The second; is the intention to create a system of fair and equitable tax collection, through the bepoke taxing of the global financial sector.

The more arcane instruments of financial markets are repurposed to be more socially productive, taxes begin to flow from speculation into public domain resources.

2013. Art market deregulated. Artworks became a commodity asset class, a component of diversified investment portfolios

Securities that exhibit similar characteristics, and are subject to the same laws and regulations are deemed an asset class. Currently, there are four main assets classes:
Equity securities (or stocks),
Fixed-income securities (or bonds),
Cash equivalents (or money market instruments),
and commodities (real estate, and derivatives).

The maturation of the art market, sees artworks added by investment banks to the commodity asset class, and included by institutional investors to their diversified portfolios. The flow of capital through artworks increases, as does the volume of trades. The price of artworks can now be seen to fall, as well as rise.

2013. Tate Modern v2.0, London

An iconic new building by architects Herzog & de Meuron opens to the south of the existing gallery. It creates more galleries for displaying the Collection, dedicated live-art and performance spaces, and re-claimed oil tanksoffer possibilities for changing site-specific installations.

Learning is at the heart of Tate Modern v2.0, reflecting Tate's commitment to increasing public knowledge and understanding. There are a range of new facilities for interpretation, informal discussion, private study, participation, structured workshops and practice based learning. Tate Exchange provides a dedicated suite of learning and research spaces for visitors, groups, visual arts professionals and staff across two floors of the new building. Tate Archive offers public access to the archive, where visitors have the opportunity to research, study, create and share digital works. A new studio and small gallery located adjacent to archive enable new works to be showcased.

2014. Personalised gene sequencing

Thirteen years ago, when the 'working draft' human genome was released, it was composed of aggergate results from several donors and cost $4bn. In 2007, Craig Ventner had his individual DNA sequenced at a cost of $10m and in 2009 Applied Biosystems mapped the genome of an anonymous Nigerian for $60,000.

Today the cost have plumeted, deCODE are able to take a DNA mouth swab and scan a million nuocelotide polymorphisms (SNPs), these are the points at which the genetic code varies between individuals, and the results used to asses the risk of more than 20 common diseases; such as cancers, heart disease, Alzheimers and diabetes. This enables individuals to take preventative lifestyle choices. Individual genotype mapping is generating research into bespoke or 'designer drugs' engineered to treat the abnormal chromosone sequences that produce mutant proteins. The traditional pharmaceutical business of model of selling vast numbers of generic drugs, is being overwritten by the supply of pharmogenes to specific genetic niches.

50 % of the global population access networked mobile devices

Android originated through a group of companies known as the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) in 2006. Since then, Android has developed into a lean FLOSS software stack for mobile devices. Easy to install, adapt and modify it quickly becames the default operating system. Its modular architecture means it can be easily ported between betwen devices and retrofitted to run on otherwise obsolete hardware. In sub-Saharan Africa, parts of India and Asia, it has revolutionalised medical and banking practices.

2014. War Child: A Century of War

The centenary of the beginning of World War 1 (WW1) initiates a year-long season of activity at Arnolfini, including four major exhibitions.

First is an exhibition of early works of the Vorticists, and a solo exhibitions by Dahn Vo. In the summer there is a major historical exhibition War Shapes Lives; Anthem for a Doomed Youth in collaboration with Imperial War Museum, exploring responses to comnflict. This includes a major tele-conference on the role of the artist in times of crisis.

In the autumn Freedom explores the role of women, war and the struggle for enfranchisemnet, and finally War Logs is a collaborative mapping project to chart global conflicts through time and space. Resources and source data are available through the on-line archive.

2014. Arnolfini is a foundation node in fledgling iCommons cultural meshwork

The Arnolfini is one of the first major public institutions to join the iCommons meshwork. By negotiating GPL v4 compliance for their archive holdings, they open the host servers and alow public research access and participation.

2014. Guggenheim Abu Dhabi

The new Guggenheim is located in the Cultural District of Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Saadiyat Island is undergoing a remarkable transformation. The Abu Dhabi Tourism Authority (ADTA) commissioned the Tourism Development & Investment Company (TDIC) to make a world-class leisure, residential, business, and tourist center, while maintaining an environmentally sensitive philosophy.

An entire district on Saadiyat Island is devoted to culture. Unprecedented in scale and scope, Saadiyat Cultural District is a center for global culture, drawing local, regional, and international visitors with unique exhibitions, permanent collections, productions, and performances. The key institutions are:

Zayed National Museum - the national museum of the United Arab Emirates, telling the story of the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, his unification of the UAE, the history of the region and its cultural connections across the world
Louvre Abu Dhabi - the first universal museum in the Arab world, designed to house the aesthetic expressions of different civilizations and cultures, from the most ancient to the most contemporary
Guggenheim Abu Dhabi - a transnational platform for global contemporary art and culture that will present the most important artistic achievements of our time
Performing Arts Center - the home of a multiplicity of genres and traditions of music, dance and theater
Maritime Museum - a testament to the Arabian Gulf's maritime heritage

Guggenheim Abu Dhabi is designed by internationally renowned architect Frank Gehry, the 450,000-square-foot museum houses its own major modern and contemporary art collection, it organize exhibitions, and generates research and scholarship into the interconnected dynamics and fundamentally transnational nature of contemporary art practice. The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi invites world-class artists to produce site-specific commissions for dedicated galleries, and select exterior locations. In addition, the museum is a catalyst for scholarship in a variety of fields, principally the history of art in the Middle East in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

2014. Radical Transparency

The structures that organizations typically use for decision-making are closed: individuals are unaccountable, abuses of power are hard to prevent and knowledge is hoarded. Radical Transparency are a set of guidelines to initiate and maintain transparent, accountable and truly participative communities. There is widespread dissatisfaction with the formal power structures found in governments and corporations, but also with the informal structures found in many voluntary and activist groups.

Developed through many Multitude organisational clusters, the Transparency guidelines are a Charter for action and governance. Radical transparency encourages openness, communication, and accountability through 'open' public meetings, 'open' budgets and full financial disclosure, and public ownership of knowledge.

Exceptions to full transparency typically include data related to personal privacy, security, and passwords necessary to carry out publicly negotiated dark-pool projects.

2015. glocal microfinance organisations

The Microfinance Information Exchange (MIE) produces a benchmarking report identifying 244 key institutions in the emerging global network of Microfinance Organisation (MFOs). They include national policy institutions, commercial banks and NGO's in Nigeria, Uganda, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Chile, Pakistan, Philippines, Europe and Vietnam.

The report analyses Outreach, Scale, Funding and Performance for a basket of MFOs, and finds that a typical loan portfolios grew at 60%, delivering long-tern positive, and stable returns. Asian MFOs lead other regions in their ability to leverage substantial equity, and some operating in densely populated areas, serve several million clients.

2015. Resource markets firewalled from speculative financial technologies

International prices of most agricultural commodities have increased in recent months, some sharply. The Food and Agricultural Organisations (FAO) Food Price index has gained 197 points since June, only 16 points short from its peak in June 2008.

The pressure on prices to rise was first felt in the cereal market, most notably for wheat and barley, although rice and maize are also affected. There is emerging consensus that the global food system is becoming more vulnerable and susceptible to episodes of extreme price volatility with terrible effects on the global poor. Similar effects are reported in energy, water, and other vital resource markets. As markets are increasingly integrated in the global economy, shocks in one can impact in another. Among the root causes of volatility, the FAO in cooperation with the IMF have identified 'Growing linkags with outside markets, in particular the impact of the futures markets'.

An index of key resources markets are prepared by the FAO, and these are firewalled from speculative trading technologies.

2015. Arts Council England disbanded. M-Shed closes

As part of the aftermath to the 6 billion overspend on the 2012 London Olympics, the government embarks on a round of pre-election cuts to the budget of the Department for Culture Media and Sport. Arts Council England is disbanded exactly 70 years after its founding.

Following four years of negative press, financial catastrophe, and the so-called "Vordermangate" scandal surrounding the unauthorised biographical exhibition about the Bristol-based celebrity Carol Vorderman, the M-Shed is forced to close. Bristol City Council put the building on the market, and a period of sustained protest and rioting ensue following a leak that the retail giant Tesco are in discussions to take over the premises.

2016. Brazil, India, China (BIC) form networked well-being coalition

Brazil, India and China (BIC) through the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) set out radical proposals to guide the direction of modern societies. In contrast to the conventional narrow focus on economic indicators, they call for governments to directly and regularly measure peoples subjective well-being. The well-being coalition will produce two indices:

The social well-being indicator measures how people experience their connections with others and the strength of those relationships. It is comprised of two component indicators which measure supportive relationships, and trust and belonging. These can be thought of representing peoples experiences of their thick and thin relationships: thick relationships represent the strong connections people experience with those who are close to them, and thin relationships the more numerous connections people establish with those they encounter in broader social spheres
The personal well-being indicator measures peoples sense of how they are feeling within themselves and experiencing their lives. It is a combination of five component indicators which measure: emotional well-being; the extent to which people have a satisfying life; vitality; resilience and self-esteem; and positive functioning.

2016. Jubilee celebration of the Arnolfini Picture Loan Scheme. Participants exchange and loan shared resources

The innovative 1966 Picture Loan Scheme inspires a new p2p project through the Arnolfini via the iCommons meshwork. Some of the original pictures are traced, their trajectories mapped and 1:1 images, some in the recently enhanced HD3 format, and made available through the exhibitionary platform of the archive.

2016. Tate, Doha

While oil and gas contibute to the backbone of Qatars economy, alongside other United Arab League (UAL) states (and driven by the reforms of the 'Arab Spring'), the country has been stimulating education and research initiatives to develop a knowledge economy. Principally, this is in the capital Doha (, ad-Dawa or ad-Da) at the Multitude Science & Technology Park, linked to Education City.

At the heart of Education City is Tate Doha, it opened in September in a Gallery designed by architects SAPEDIA. The new buildings faade echoes regional architecture, its a perforated brick lattice, a veil through which the interior and exterior can exchange and through which interior lights will glow in the evening. The building rises 64.5 metres above ground in 11 levels, beautiful new galleries displaying the Collection have a variation of sizes and shapes, and there are larger spaces for temporary exhibitions, and a cutting-edge Media Lab. Tate's mission of integrating exhibition with high-quality spaces for learning and interpretation is exemplified by Tate Exchange, a network of large flexible interactive study centres, specifically designed for visitors, students and professionals to research, exchange skills and exhibit ideas.

2016. African clusters exploits solar energy farms

SoCal Edison, a worldwide energy resource developer based in Aranjuez, Spain, announced yesterday that it will partner with private-equity firm Riverstone Holdings, and clusters in the Africa Multitude to invest over US$23 billion over the next ten years in solar energy projects on the continent. These mixed use energy farms combine silicon wafer photovoltaic panels, with third generation clustered wind turbines that capable of outputing 200 Gigawatt of power. Excess energy will be sold to the Grid.

2017. United Arab League (UAL) states move from carbon, to knowledge economies

The United Arab League ( al-Jmia al-Arabiyya) has been reconfigured by the 'Arab Spring', and currently consists of 22 members and four observers from North Africa and the Middle East. The main goal of the league is to 'draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to foster prosperity in Arab countries.'

The UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, confirm in their report The Impact of Globalization on Higher Education and Research in the United Arab League that education, research and development, museum, heritage and tourist visits account for a greater proportion of League GDP than carbon exports.

2017. Arnolfini is no longer building-based. Its mobile, distributed and participates in economies of knowledge and attention

Arnolfini substantially leaves Bush House. Distributing and re-imagining a 21st Century art organisation through a networked cluster - cutting their carbon debt to almost 12 radically scaled Arnolfini's activities. While developing locally, they also began to produce a wider Arnolfini network. The fist cooperation opened with Tate in Doha as Arnolfini participated in the local ecologies restructuring of resources; from carbon to knowledge. The Mumbai node emerged, with the Ex Habare three-year research project in cooperation with several self-organised Research Institutions- Nowhere based in Moscow, the Critical Practice consortium in London, and Sarai in Delhi. Shanghai launched, and then the Guangzhou node went live with La Part Maudite: Bataille and the Accursed Share exploring the ethics of waste and expenditure, and the love, and terror, implicit in a general economy of uninhibited generosity.

As information grows increasingly abundant and immediately available, attention becomes a limiting factor in accessing information and producing knowledge. Insights from Arnolfini's research with the New Economic Forum (NEF) enable participants to better invest their attention in flows of information through media ecologies.

2017. 1979 Ashley Clinton Endowment Fund is reactivated, augmented by Transaction Tax resources

Although the Ashley Clinton Fund is still extant, many of the fixed assets generating the endowement have been dispersed; its financial contribution is negligable. The astonishing resource flows raised from the fully functioning Transaction tax, are being distributed through public infrastructural projects and iCommons meshworks. The fledgling West of England Multitude decides to reactivate the Ashley Clinton Fund to provide a real-time resource pool for the Arnolfini.

2017. Asymetric exchange between emergent Multitudes and disintegrating Nation States triggers trade wars

A political economy dominated by financial institutions operating independently of national boundaries, and the emergence of the Multitude (in cooperation with a repurposed UN and IMF) as a p2p system of governance and organisation exposes tensions. A nation state can no longer be considered a distinct economic identity with autonomous decision-making power. Either thay freely aggregate into larger federal structures or dissolve. In the process, in a last bid to exhert influence many national goverments restrict the free flow of goods and services through their managed economies in order to disciplne the Multitude and achieve political objectives, through economic means.

Few events galvanize people's emotions and focus attention of private and public interests than trade wars. When people are called upon to sacrifice current consumption in order to discipline an uncooperative trading partner.

Small mobile adhocracies, the Corn Law clusters formed to contest......


2018. Cybernetic Serendipity jubilee exhibition distributed throughout growing exhibitionary cluster: Arnolfini, ICA, Whitechapel and Micropolitics

Following the logic of cybernetics, where present actions are adjusted by past performance, the Arnolfini feedsback to the source, the legendary Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art ICA in London; on the exhibitions 50th anniversary. In collaboration with the ICA (actually this is via Tate who have purchased the ICA's archive, and are in process om making the material available under a version of the GPL v3, TateGPL) Whitechapel, and the Micropolitics network, Arnolfini are reconveneing the exhibition. The original curator, Jasia Reichardt contributes expert advice as machines and processes, both analogue and digital are emulated through a variety of media ecologies.

The project moves beyond the archival, enabling the Arnolfini to explore a whole new strand of recursive programming.

2018. New British Sculpture jubilee exhibition. Arnolfini coordinates reanimation of source exhibition

Following in the recursive programming strand is the jubilee celebration of the groundbreaking exhibition New British Sculpture; Bristol. Remembered as the first contemporary sculpture exhibition, located in Bristol city centre, Arnolfini coordinates a reanimation of the first exhibition. Working from archival sources, many of the sculptures are located or reconstructed and the previous locations identified, the Magistrates Court, Bank of England, Norwich Union Building, Queen Square, College Green, City Centre gardens, Bristol and West Building Society.

A surprise is that the majority of the locations are no longer outside spaces, and many have been enclosed by the various shopping complexes in the city centre.

2018. Nanotech water purification

Water-borne pathogens cause between 10 and 13 million deaths worldwide and there is a growing threat, exacerbated by demographic drift and urbanization, of emerging pollutants and antibiotic-resistant pathogens contaminating water resources. There are fears over a pndemic, and in June armed struggles erupted in parts of Southern Sudan, and Somalia over resources.

Developed by AQUclear, cheap nanotech membranes are deployed to areas of resource stress to alleviate scarcity. They are the first in a line of nanotech technologies, specifically for advanced water purification and desalination. There are essentially two types of membranes: nanostructured filters, where carbon nanocapillary arrays provide filtration; and nanoreactive membranes, where silver or titanium dioxide catalysts, provide chemical filtration process.

2018. Art market and commercial distribution system, linked to finance and heritage becomes autonomous from emergent art practice

The 19th Century ideological construction of the artist, had reached its absolute limit. An ideological model that privileges creative exchanges between artist and media in a 'studio', which are then distributed through competitive trade and exhibitionary institutions - commercial galleries, auction franchises and private dealers, has become increasingly circular.

Typically a commercial gallery represents between 10 and 25 artists. To be represented, usually means that an artist is offered a solo exhibition annually or bi-annually and their artworks will be included in appropriate gallery group exhibitions. Representation for the gallery, includes bringing the artwork to the attention of curators and collectors, and placing the work in curated public exhibitions, Biennials, and at Art Fairs; nationally and internationally. Galleries also arrange studio visits with select collectors and curators, organise Private Views to launch exhibitions, assemble press brunches and lunches, and choreograph lavish dinners and after-parties. The primary Gallerist chooses, nurtures and develops the artists they represent through creating a dense social network. Much of the labour of nurture is in the management of the informational prosthesis of the circulating artworks; through producing press releases and exhibition invites, buying advertising space, placing articles in newspapers and magazines, publishing catalogues, documenting and archiving artworks, and by cultivating critics, editors and publishers. As configured, art as a creative process had ceased to innovate, inspire or have any critical purchase.

At best this model extends a small measure of creative agency to the encounter between audiences - often referred to as passive viewers- and artworks at exhibition. Competitive markets thrive on artificial difference and managed risk, they are too limited a technology to nurture, challenge, or distribute a truly creative art practice, therefore art practices bifurcate; into artefacts produced as market assets, and emergent practice.

2018. Arnolfini archive of administration, exhibitions, music, live art and film joins iCommons

Having helped produce and then adopted the Transparency guidelines for Multitude institutions, the Arnolfini opens all its archive holdings and functional processes to the iCommons meshwork.

2019. iCommons infrastructures: satellite, cellular and fibre

The Multitude takes control of, and manages a range of free telecommunications infrastructures, including satellite, cellular and fibre communications. Through the Free Infrastructure Foundation (FIF) they manage the Internet Exchange Points (IXP), and Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAE), that constitute the top level of the Internet topology, the licensing of infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and radio wave, and the patent systems.

2019. Singularity Art Bond issue

We are very excited to be launching this new market today. We are determined to continue expanding and diversifying our product offering while responding to the needs and demands of our customers. There has already been considerable interest in this new market from issuers, member firms and private investors, and we look forward to further facilitating that growing interest as the market establishes itself over the coming months. Anusha Shrivastava. Morgan Capital Management

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in cooperation with Morgan Capital Management of the Cayman Islands issue the first Singularity Art Bond. The Singularity Art Bond is introduced in response to strong private investor demand for greater access to singularity, The market offers continuous two-way pricing for trading in bonds and retail-size bonds on-exchange for the first time. In an effort to raise capital to continue growth The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, supported by dedicated market makers, the Azko la Caixa collection has committed to a leading role, the Thyssen-Bornemisza museum, Madrid and Hermitage Museum, Moscow, along with other tier 1 private museums, are designating specific artworks in the collection as singular and guarantee they will never be replicated, loaned or reproduced.

The market index is linked to 125 Museums and currently some $12.2bn of capital is in play. In the first quarter of trading The Guggenheim bonds offered an initial risk premium of 215 basis points over Treasurys. After investors showed little interest, the Museum fattened the stakes by padding the spread with 15 basis points, but even at 230 basis points over Treasurys, investors are slow to react.

Morgan Capital Management is a leading early stage venture capital firm that invests in and actively assists innovative financial instruments.

2020. Ex-Habare: The Practice of Exhibition, research initiated at Arnolfini and distributed through iCommons meshwork

The three year research project hosted by Arnolfini, finally activates its findings. The project enabled participants to un-compress the Latinate root of exhibition, ex habare, to reveal the intention of holding-out or showing evidence in a legal court. Implicit in the geneology of 'exhibition' is the desire to show, display and share with others. By grafting this ancient drive to desires for p2p creative co-production, exhibition remains core to Arnolfinis aspirations. To source, participate, co-produce and share, to generate non-rivalous resources are also vital to the constitution of the iCommons Public Domain meshwork. And indeed, a civil society. Ex-Habare: The Practice of Exhibition distributed these values, and, they replicate at an astonishing speed.

2020. Smart bacteria

When you think of all the things that are made from oil and the chemical industry and the fuel industries if in the future we will find bacteria to replace most if not all of these processes, the ideal way would be to do it by direct design. Carmen Moran Garcia.

Because of their ability to grow quickly and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria are workhorses for research and biotechnology. Carmen Moran Garcia at the European Genome Research Institute (EGRI) has been coordinating mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes, to determine the function of genes, enzymes and metabolic pathways in bacteria.

EGRI pharmed bacteria, 'booted up' with a retrovirus enables a range of human therapeutic processes; such as the production of insulin, stimulation of growth factors, or intalling antibodies to be replicated by the host. A designer organism has also been developed to perform specific tasks, a genetically engineered algae is currently synthesising sunlight and CO2 into a biofuel.

2020. The Multitude coordinates the global iCommons and Transaction Tax

The 1 percent transaction tax, of financial market exchanges begins to redirct trillions of dollars of resources to public domain infrastructures, NGO's, some governments committed the electoral reform, and cultural organisations. Given the global and supra-national nature of these markets, and the tradition of tax avoidance in the financial institutions that make these markets, enforced compliancen and collection, intitially proves sporadic. The average daily trading volume of the US bond market alone is $822 billion, of which in the first year. taxes logged where +++++++++) The Mutitude, in cooperation with the UN and IMF begins to manage compliance, collection and distribution.

2021. Knowledge franchise. Tom Trevor steps-down as Director, replaced by fixed-term executive Rachel Chan

Arnolfini's innovative research with the New Economic Forum (NEF), their pioneering development of p2p knowledge producion with the Free University of the West of England is franchised.

Tom Trevor after sixteen years in the post steps down as Director, to take up a post as consultant to the Avon Wellbeing initiative. Rachel Chan, based in Dalian in Northeast China takes over as fixed term executive.

2021. Jubilee recollection of Matrix, 1971 exhibition of generative, conceptual and system-based artworks

Throughout the year Matrix, the 1971 exhibition of generative, conceptual and system-based artworks is re-installed as software in the hardware that is the Arnolfini. The programme generates, composes, and constructs a new instance of Matrix.

2021. Nano-prosthesis and regenerative medicine

Stem cell therapies and DNA biotechnology have developed a range of regenerative medicines. The pluripotency of Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, enables them to differentiate into all derivatives of the 220 cell types in the adult human body. Additionally, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely. In September, at the Lagoon Clinic in Lagos Nigeria, ES Cells cloned from Aaron Ewedafe have been cultured into a replacement left ventricle and aorta, and are transpalated in a six hour procedure. While cloned protein-coding genes and part-synthetic bacteria have been manufactured and assimulated for some time, this is the first major organ procedure.

Genetic modeling has also proved useful in running scenario-planned trials of diseases and viral pandemics.

Dr. Joachim Krueger of the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (APR) in Potsdam-Golm has developed a nano-composite and manufacturing process for a corneal prosthesis. The artificial cornea fulfills almost contradictory specifications: On the one hand, the material fuses with surrounding cells and tissue; on the other hand, no cells can graft with the optical region of new cornea, since this would severely impair the ability to see. As well as this, the outside of the implant has to be continually moist with tear fluid, so that the eyelid can slide across without friction. Dr. Krueger designed and manufactured the the solution with a hydrophobic nano-composite.

2021. Sweden declared carbon neutral

We are the first industrial country to present a very clear route to make ourselves independent of carbon and reduce emissions to the levels climate measures require. Minister for the Environment Andreas Carlgren.

Ahead of assuming its full incorporation into the Multitude in July this year, Sweden has declared itself carbon-neutral and this has been verified by the Carbon Ratings Agency. The country was one of the first to enact carbon taxes in 1990, but has now announced a much more ambitious plan to be carbon neutral through efforts in three areas. Currently, 90% of Swedens energy supply comes from hydro, wind and bio fuels

2022. Organic-synthetic assemblies

Two teams at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IITB) led by Professors Judith Armitage and Dilip Ballal have made the first steps towards being able to engineer an synthetic bacterial cell that senses and responds to novel environmental cues. The technology, described in the July distribution of Science, can overwrite specific DNA sequences by using a find-and-replace function. The researchers can make hundreds of targeted edits to the Streptomyces genome, and then install the synthetic sensing circuits inside the cell, Once 'booted-up' the assembly writes and replicates the new biosensors.

Professors Armitage and Ballal have made the largest man-made DNA structure to-date.

2022. Governance through local adhocracies and real-time consensus

The Multitudes activities are organized through free cooperation, via Assemblies, Coordination Groups, adhocracies and individual working groups, each focused on a different aspect of governance, but united by a common set of concerns, and common guidelines.

The Assembly

There are currently five regional Assemblies of the Multitude, which exist to oversee the legal and financial integrity of the Multitude. The Assemblies review and monitors the finances of the Multitude and discharges the standard statutory responsibilities (such as delivering accounts). Election to the Assembly is five year fixed term. Abridged minutes of Assembly meetings are published in real-time, and accounts are held-in-common for public scrutiny by the Secretariat.

The Coordination Group

The Coordination Group is made up of the leadership of every Adhocracy and Working group. The Coordination Group deals with all adhocracy and working group related matters including incubating, approving, retiring, monitoring their progress, etc. There is at least one Assembly member who sits on the Coordination Group.

Adhocracies and Working Groups

Adhocracies and working groups have autonomy as regards the running of specified and time-bound projects; although responsibility is devolved. Adhocracies and Working Groups are the chief decision-making units. This reduces friction and allows greater creative diversity to emerge than in top-down monocultural organisation. Open disenssus allows the most promising ideas to come to the fore, and real-time consensus is used for decision making.

The Multitude believes that authority and power, must be matched by responsibility. Concretely this means active and able contributors will have the greatest control over a projects activities; governance exists to ensure a solid institutional framework to support these activities. Differences are recognised as a creative force: dissensus, when discussed openly enable an adhocracies processes to be clarified and implemented. All Adhocracies and working groups are involved in promoting iCommons infrastructures, knowledge and reseources.

2022. Networked Governance, exhibitionary research through glocal iCommons nodes

The Arnolfini leads a critique of the 19th Century museum model, in which an exhibitionary institution has to constantly expand, commission signature buildings, evolve huge administrative hierarchies for exhibition, education, support, management and so on. And began instituting, in the ancient sense of the word, of founding and supporting, of instituting creative practice. As a creative institution, they started to play, risk, cooperate, research and rapidly prototype. Not only through research and distributed exhibitions, such as ex-habare or the Radical Transparency project , but also with their governance and organisational structure.

Some values were lost which is always painful, and yet others were produced. And, those most relevant maintained, nurtured and cherished. With Intermediae in Madrid, Arnolfini learnt to invest, long-term, without regard for an interested return. They devolved locally (with Spacex, Eden project and the Free Bristol University ******) and networked globally with partners in Vienam, USA, ****. There were some failures; either exhibitions couldnt convene the necessary resources, or there were mistakes.

The Arnolfini is an exhibitionary institution immanent to its networks.

2022. Frieze Art Academy, Beijing, China

Concerned about the scarcity of assets generally in the art market, and specifically its Fair franchise, The Frieze Foundation announce, in cooperation with Deutsche Bank, the opening of an art academy in the Haidian district of Bejing. The Frieze Art Academy will ensure a measure of value-at-risk control over the newly produced assets.

Frieze Art Academy offer the 1,200 students a diverse range of courses at all levels, from undergraduate to postgraduate and research. The Academy's 43 teaching staff, as active professional artists, gallerists, dealers, agents, critics and theorists, ensure creative and experimental practice alongside sound business analysis, and strategies. The combination of a varied student group, cutting-edge research and highly-experienced staff creates a unique, multifaceted learning experience for students at the Academy.

2023. Water crisis, Indian Multitude. Patent and copyright term reverts to 15 years

There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not about having too little water to satisfy our needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people - and the environment - suffer badly. World Water Vision

More than two billion people worldwide live in regions facing water scarcity, and in India this is a particularly acute crisis. Nearly 70% of discharge to the River Ganges comes from Nepalese snow-fed rivers, these Himalayan glaciers are shrinking and as a consequence water supplies to hundreds of millions of people in the Bay of Bengal is diminished. In February resources are becomes scarce, by August tensions among different user groups intensify, conflicts erupt, and an estimated 3,500 people are killed in disputes over access. Regional tension is heightened. In early October, Unesco and World Water Vision join forces in response to the growing threat and deploy AQUclear membranes to enable the use of previously unpotable water.

2023. Standard Social Wage

The Nigeria Labour Congress, NLC and Trade Union Congress of Nigeria, TUC, yesterday said the three days warning strike over non-implementation of N18.000 social wage by the Nigerian Govenment, and other West African nations.

Leaders of NLC and TUC said the nations air space, seaports, financial sector, petroleum industry, manufacturing and other sectors of the economy would be closed during the strike that is scheduled to commence on Wednesday, July 20.

MORE MORE link to multitude and African

2024. Transactional Aesthetics, Arnolfini coordinated research project through local iCommons cluster

A landmark project for the Arnolfini was Transactional Aesthetics. As artists rethought their practices through p2p meshworks, they recognised themselves as a nexus of complex social process. And that creativity was inherent in every conceivable transaction producing that nexus, at whatever the intensity, and regardless of the scale of the assembly. The huge challenge everyone involved, was to attend to the lines of force, the transactions, and not be dazzled by the subjects, objects or institutions they produced.

Through Transactional aesthetics artists practices merged with the nexus of creative forces designated by Arnolfini, merged into relations of mutual co-production. And in exchange, Arnolfini began to think of itself as a creative institution, subject to constant critical and creative exploration.

2024. Guggenheim corporate collapse, collection reverts to public domain

In January, the spectacular sixty five year roller-coaster ride of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is over, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, New York, Venice, Bilbao and the Deutsche Guggenheim in Berlin, Germany, are all taken into recievership.

Guggenheim Foundation was the largest private museum in the world, its demise has triggered turmoil in global art markets, although the repercussions go much wider. Most auction francises, some investment banks, commercial galleries and local city authorities in need of regeneration have dealings with the Guggenheim Foundation. Unwinding the Guggenheim Foundation's complex financial obligations, especially its risky bond issue, will take months if not years. Many galleries and investment banks don't know for sure how much they are exposed to the Foundation.


2024. Virus infects dark-pool financial trading algorithms. Futures markets seize

Dark pools of liquidity have grown rapidly over the past decade, essentially they are bespoke markets closed to non-members. Convened by large financial institutions isolated from public exchanges so that trades are anonymous. They also avoid Transaction Tax scrutiny. Large executions of stock transactions are performed in dark pools without traders moving the market against themselves. There are two kinds of pools; first are independent companies, like Short Term Capital Management offering to convene specialist boutique markets. Second are broker-owned dark pools where clients of the broker interact, most commonly with other clients of the broker, in conditions of anonymity. The four most prominant broker-owned pools by volume are

* Instinet
* SmartPool
* Pulse Trading BlockCross
* RiverCross

Although the whole point of dark-pools is to be secure, in May a breach and infection occured. A polymorphic virus entered the pools (although how is unclear) writing an encrypted copy of itself within each recorded transaction. Each transaction the virus rewrites itself so no parts remain identical between infections, making it impossible to detect. Within four hours the markets siezed, and the code spreads to the futures market ++++++++++

2024. Global transit crisis

The UN-Ms 2024 World Transit Report on Human mobility, records that 175 million people are currently residing in a city other than where they were born, the number of people in transit in the world has more than doubled since 2000, with most living in Europe (56 million), Asia (50 million), and Northern America (41 million), according to findings from the UN-Multitude Population Division.

As the issue of transit has been thrust to the forefront of reseource management, the need for accurate, timely and comparable information and analyses on transit levels, trends and policies has acquired unprecedented urgency. Transition is an essential part and consequence of different intensities occuring in ecologies of networked interests. The needs of those in transit have to be factored into Multitude resource management, to assist in economic wellbeing. Just as protectionism in exchange needs to be avoided, so should protectionism in transit be resisted, as people in transit and migration and indeed human mobility may be part of future solutions, not problems.

A strong degree of solidarity between peoples in transit, and countries of origin and destination is necessary. To safeguard and continue to harness the benefits flowing from transition.

In addition, IOM underscores the need to carefully monitor the impact of the financial crisis on migrants as well as countries of origin, transit and destination, and to carry out, collect and disseminate relevant gender-sensitive research and sex and age-disaggregated data in collaboration with its Member States, international agencies (e.g., those agencies participating in the Global Migration Group) as well as other pertinent partners. IOM is preparing an online survey on migration and the economic crisis, which will be sent to IOM field missions with a view to collecting data on a quarterly basis.

AbellA, M. And G. ducAnes (2024) The Effect of Transit on Workers and Governments Bancock, ILO Pacific.

2025. Natural Language and thought recognition interface. Intellectual and emotional firewalls

Gesture and Natural Language interfaces, have dominated interaction with most machine assemblies, technologies and environments. All this is about to change. In June, Teresa Schuette, coordinator of interaction for Social Interface, launched the companys neural headset. The neural headset learns, translates (filtering out noise) sand eventually predicts electrical signals produced by neurons, nerves, and muscles and turns these into intention. Currently the neural headset requires a training phase, although this is expected to be reduced to a matter of hours in the near future.

The possibilities opened by the neural headset, also raise important issues of personal security. Popular ways to secure an organic synthetic networks are by advanced cryptographic techniques for safeguarding sensitive information from unauthorized access, or manipulation. Social Interface, are currently trialling intellectual and emotional firewalls.

2025. African Multitude formed

We invite and encourage the full participation of the those people in transit as an important part of our Continent, and in the building of the African Multitude. The Constitutive Act of the AM

The African Multitude (AM) is a free cooperation, with Assemblies, Foundations, adhocracies, clusters and working groups active in and through some 53 states. Constituted in July, the AM is a successor to the African Union (AU) and has grown through local energy adhocarcies and resource clusters. The AM's secretariat, and fixed term Assembly is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where they meet quarterly.

The Assembly is convened by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, from Equatorial Guinea, elected at the tenth ordinary meeting of the Assembly in January. The AM's Coordination Group consists of 265 members nominated by the adhoccracies, clusters and working groups. Its current executive is Idriss Ndele Moussa from Chad.

The Aims of the African Multitude are:

* to accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent
* to promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples
* to achieve peace and security in Africa
* to promote participatory institutions, good governance and human rights

2025. Dark-pool financial collapse triggers avalanche of default art donations to public domain Museum collections

Following the demise of the Guggenheim foundation, other hyper-resourced private museums are also in trouble, the Azko la Caixa collection, the Generali Foundation, and the former Ullens Center for Contemporary Art in Beijing, and MOCA in Shanghai all file for Chapter 12 bancrupcy protection with the UN-Multitude.

In November, the artworks from the failed Museums devolve to the multitude and enter public Museum collections. In a spectacular reverse of resource flows, tens of thousands artworks pour into public collections from previously private institutions and collections. Tate, benefits enormously from a spate of default donations, as does Musee du Louvre, Paris, Museum Contemporary Art, Rio De Janeiro, MOMA, New York, National Art Museum of China, and MOMA Nairobi.

2026. prototype nano-manufactories

Blue Nano have a tradition of manufacturing high-quality, high-volume nanomaterials with a focus on clean energy and display technologies. They specialise in high conductivity elastomers, thermosets, and thermoplastics using non-metallic fillers. In May, they announce a breakthrought from their research hub in Grenoble. A simple molecular assembler has guided organic-synthetic cource code carrying instructions from messenger RNA to manufacture specific sequences of amino acids, protein chains and carbon molecules, into cells.

The organic-sythetic cells grow/aggregate from single molecules into supramolecular assemblies, and then structural nano-polymers. The programmed RNA shows evidence of learning, and them self-assembling more complex versions of themselves. Its the first nano-manufactory.

2026. DNA storage devices

Encoding information in DNA starnds and replicating the information with each reiteration has been possible for some time, the difficulty has been the transcoding mechanism. Coordinated by by Dr. Garaj at MIT openlabs, and exhibited at the Whitechapel in September, researchers have been successful using graphene nanopores to array single DNA strands for both coding and decoding. Using electric fields, the tiny DNA strands are pushed through nanoscale-sized, atomically thin pores in a graphene nanopore platform that ultimately may be important for fast electronic sequencing of the four chemical bases of DNA based on their unique electrical signature.


2026. Arnolfini franchises emerge in India, China and Brazilian Multitudes

The amazing Arnolfi initiated Ornament exhibition in Shanghai provides the impetus for informal franchises. As Arnolfini's iCommons collection, exhibitions and activities expanded - and of course other exhibitionary institutions in the network too - an ethic of public generosity is distributed, nurtured and also encouraged. Everyone benefits. The increased resources, and the gifts, donations and reversions from failed private museums enabled Arnolfini to distribute collected artworks, and build partnerships with the Lalit Kala Akademi in Kerala, India; with Ningbo Posa in Guangzhou, China, and EMBRAPA Solis (EM), based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to create what was rather fondly termed, the Bristol cluster.

2027. The Great Refusal. Mass boycott of representational democratic processes

What was to become known as the Great Refusal, coordinated through the Multitude, is a mass boycot of Government elections in many European countries. Starting in Spanish Assemblies, the refusals spread throughout the EU-M, to Italy, Turkey, Portugal and Poland. Even in countries where voting is compulsory, in Belgium, Greece and Australia, voter registration and attendance have collapsed. As governments try to produce the citizen best suited to fulfill governments' policies, there is a loss of trust in elected officials, and the institution through which the government's actions are exercised.

The decline in participation in representational democracies is accompanied by a huge rise in civic participation; attendance in Assemblies, foundations, local adhocracies, membership of NGO's, fraternal organisations, interest groups societies, credit unions and microfinnace organisations, and especially the deliberative democratic processes coordinated by the Multitude.

2027. Singularity Art Bond withdrawn. Market collapse

With the collapse of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation some two years earlier, and the slow unwinding of its liabilities, Morgan Capital Management announce the suspension of the Singularity Art Bond. It is pretty clear that since January the volumes of trade has been much lower. On the 16th February just over 2% of the bonds changed hands on that day as investor confidence deserted the market.

2028. Operating System: Governance. Social software research project, adds executable function to exhibitionary core of Arnolfini

Operating System: Governance is the result of a two year research thread into exhibition as a technology, and immanence as an institutional logic. The project concludes with the realisation that the Arnolfini needs to be subject to radical revision, to execute some of the research. To enact. To be more agent than immanent.

2028. Real-time dissensus replaces majority voting in governance

Most City administrations, local authorities, NGO's, civil and cultural institutions, implementing Transpareny and Multitude organisational guidleines roll out rel-time disenssus in decision making processes. Its been used at a local level for over a deacade. The process allows users to browse the raw vote count from recent decisions and quickly drill down to a provincial, district, adhocracy or even working group view.

2028. The Multutude enforce dark-pool tax compliance

We are sticking to the principle that every transaction, every actor, every financial market participant should be regulated so that we have an overview of what is happening on the financial markets. Radha Krishna Murthy, The Global Financial Authority (GFA)

At the Multitude convened G33 summit in South Korea in November, the GFA bring oversight to bare on dark pool trading and release 737.8 billion of financial resources.

2029. Lunar resource colony

ORBITEC based in Star City, Moscow Oblast, Russia, design and implements the architecture of the first Self Sustaining Resource Colony (SSLC) near the Shackleton crater at the Lunar south pole. Chemical analyses performed on previous Lunar samples indicate Helium-3 (He-3)is in hight concentration, in quantities of 0.01 ppm to 0.05 ppm. He-3 is an essential fuel for research into thermonuclear fusion reactors.

2029. Self-aware organic-synthetic assemblies

The Sarai research cluster at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (IITB) led by Professor Dilip Ballal claim another first. They assemble a self-aware (SA) intelligent agent, an organic synthetic assembly which senses, is able to act upon an environment and directs its activity towards achieving goals. SA organic synthetic assemblies aggregate the potentials in earlier agents

  • simple reflex agents
  • model-based reflex agents
  • goal-based agents
  • utility-based agents
  • learning agents

The new SA assemblies are able to learn, and use knowledge to alter and further achieve their goals.

2029. Carbon tipping point

Global carbon use peaks, emissions recorded at 12.7 billion metric tons.

2031. Radical transparency and participation result in the end of spectatorship

Radical transparency?????????

2031. Life expectancy reaches 100

The past is consumed in the present and the present lives only to bring forth the future. Kaare Christensen

Theres been a linear growth in life expectancy over the last 200 years, increasing regularly by 3 months every year since 1831. At the Free University of Southern Denmark, a research team at the Ageing Research Center, led by Kaare Christensen, claim life expectancy will continue to rise indefinitely. Current life expectancy is 100, although theyve calculated that half the children born in 2031 will live past 120.

2033. European resource crisis

In January an all-time oil-price peak of $ 187 is recorded; prices of food commodities such as vegetable oil, grains, dairy products and cattle reach record levels in the first half of the year; there is a leaking away of social cpitals of wellbeing, trust and generosity, rising elecricity prices due to increased demand in the African Multitude, and Asian Multitude exchange restrictions on rare earth metals and minerals drive up prices, and attention is under threat. The EU-M Sustainable Development Strategy, estimates that the recent price peak in food caused an additional 75 million people to suffer from resource shortages. In September there are protests, even riots.

Many uncertainties exist in the availability of resources. For renewables, short-term conditions are hard to predict and developments determining long-term availability are highly uncertain. As for non-renewables, the quantity in remaining is unknown and the enlargement of reserves is dependent on investment, research and innovation.

EU-M Sustainable Development Strategy, outlines four policy objectives, two of which are the subject of resource scarcity policies in a narrow sense (affordable and available) and two of which fall within the scope of wider resource policies:
Affordable: supply of resources to citizens at affordable prices;
Security of supply: a physically uninterrupted and secure supply to citizens;
Environmentally sensitive: an ecologically responsice supply of resources from source citizens
Fair: preventing negative external impacts of the affordable, secure and sensitive supply of resources to citizens

2035. Arnolfini becomes a key value in economies of trust and attention

Trust circulating through economies of attention is a key vector in the new political economy. Through attention we can glimpse the horizon of values, technologies for regulation, distribution, competition and accumulation. Its both a power and a communicative medium, and nothing moves outside of its sphere of influence, everything is permeated by attention. Trust in turn, as it communicates reproduces economies of attention, and networked economies of attention organise as they communicate, they channel and coordinate the movement of finance and desire, structuring interconnections through networks of exchange.

Arnolfini commands trust, and trust organises, and as it organises becomes an immanent value in economies of attention. The local and the global are different flows, different ecologies within the same network of forces.


2036. Self-organising organic-synthetic assembles

In April at the Wellbeing (******) research A prototype self-organising organic-synthetic assembly dispalys the ability to sense, claculate, and act. The assembly would seem to be able consider and recognise importance (simple salience) detect and respond to hazard, and grapple with rudimantary autonomy. Early interactions suggest an evolving consciousness: (displaying subjective experience and thought), self-awareness: (being aware of oneself as a separate entity, especially to be aware of one's own thoughts), sentience: (the ability to "feel" perceptions or emotions subjectively), and sapience: (the capacity to act with appropriate judgment).

These latterly evolving traits open an ethical dilema, because a assembly with consciousness may have legal rights.

2038. Viral pandemic amongst organic-synthetic assemblies. Mass data loss

Organic-synthetic assemblies pass 1950s Turing Test

2039. Ecology of Fear, research and exhibitionary network exploring conflict, war and terror

Coinciding with the distribution of the UN-M backed Global Accord on Conflict and Terrorism in the 21st Century, the multilateral exhibitionary network 'Ecology of Fear' looks to consider crisis and collective anxieties in the inter-human sphere, the natural world and the built environment.

2039. Affinity buildings, responsive to emotional economies

The Arnolfini inhabits a new series of affinity buildings, comissioned from Sapience habitat ecologist. These building sense emotional excess in their guests, and an emotional excess towards others, and environmentally respond. Affinity buildings imagines their guests as an openness, a nexus of communal relations, an intensity in an economy of information, desires, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience connected to mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. The guest is not the origin of individual dispositions, its a prereflective and corporeal openness to others interests, including the buildings.

2049. Nuclear fusion, second-stage energy resource. 62% of population reside in Asian multitude

At last, energy from nuclear fusion comes on stream and contributes to the grid. A consortium from the United States, Russia, Europe and Japan built the first fusion reactor, The Faraday Experimental Reactor (FER) in Cadarache, France. Driven by Albert Einstein's mass-energy equivalence, a super heated gas plasma is squeezed into an ever decreasing ring by an electomagnetic field until particle fusion occurs. Harnessing the controlled fusion of helium-3 (3He), supplied from the SSLC v1 Lunar resource colony, and deuterium (2H) produces a helium-4 nucleus (4He) and enormous quantities of heat energy. Common materials, producing almost unlimited energy, like our sun.

2050. Materials, artifacts and food assembled by nanobots in manufactories

The principal output of the first commercial nanofactory will be macroscale quantities of atomically precise diamondoid products. These products may include nanocomputers, medical nanorobots, products having diverse aerospace and defense applications, devices for cheap energy production and environmental remediation, and a cornucopia of new and improved consumer products.

The nanofactory is a molecular manufacturing system employing controlled molecular assembly that will make possible the creation of fundamentally novel products having the intricate complexity currently found only in biological systems, but operating with greater speed, power, reliability, and, most importantly, entirely under human control. Molecular manufacturing has the potential to be extremely clean, efficient, and inexpensive.


2050. Almost Real: Composite Consciousness, Alan Turing centenary exhibition

"We may hope that machines will eventually compete with men in all purely intellectual fields." Alan Turing

To coincide with the centenary or Turing's Computing Machinery and Intelligence the Arnolfin coordinates an exhibition of resources. The history of human philosophical inquiry presupposes an already constituted subject, a conscious, self present, sovereign individual in possession of private property, anterior to communal relations. In contrast Almost Real: Composite Consciousness is constituted as an an exploration of openness to others, an openness that precedes and establishes communal relations, the very condition of interpersonal and communal existence. Composite Consciousness is a gift, a gift that constitutes the social identity of the those that reciprocate, and in that reciprocation, the gift is the interval (the difference) between those present, and those not. The time of the disinterested gift is the time of memory it shifts the present into the future, or recollects the past into the present.

Composite Consciousness is based on difference, not similarity or even homogeneity.

2055. War of attention

[..].in an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it demmands the attention of those attending to it. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it" Herbert Simon

There is a diffused sense, a nagging background ache of permanent emergency. Attention is quantified and sold, skirmishes break out, they escalate into local conflicts for social capital; for reputation, attention and trust. Creativity and the iCommons encourages attention into things as yet unknown, long-term investment in common goods, co-investment or the co-productions of public goods. There are still aspects of private interests and retail culture that strive to destroy attention, that thrive on minimum, short term, calculated investment. Hits, links, strategic content plans, soft power, subscribers, eyeballs, platforms, social media lock-ins, filters, boycots and strikes are some of the tools deployed as people struggle for control over their attention. Attribution is key in a political economy of contribution.

2056. Arnolfini agent in the research and exhibition of extension to article 39: Declaration of Human Rights

Article 6: Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Arnolfin is agent in research into adding an articls to the UN-Multitude Declaration of Human Rights. Since the 1831 Bristol Riots there has been a legacy of struggles for enfranchisemnet. All humans are persons in the eyes of the law, although there has been a philosophical and legal distinction iserted between humans and persons. Humans are those that fall within the biological classification homo sapiens, whereas a person refers to those with certain traits or characteristics. Since John Locke (1690) defined a person as a 'thinking intelligent being that has reason and reflection and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing, in different times and places' the criteria for personhood includes self-awareness, self-control, a number of sophisticated cognitive capacities such as problem solving and analytical thought, a sense of past and future, the ability to relate to others, demonstrate concern for others and to communicate with others.

Since Organic synthetic assemblies meet the criteria for personhood, although not that for human the Arnolfini are researching and exhibiting to add an article, article 39: extends human rights to such assemblies.

2056. Nano-manufctories. 1:1 molecular replication enabled. Outside of heritage, singularity is overwritten by difference

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.

These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole


2056. Composite is live

The Composite meshwork is live. All data, information and kmowledge protected by the GPL v4, every archive, database, digital collection, and server farm accessible to iCommons is available live and in real-time.

2058. Museum of Their Wishes, Centenary of Moderna Museet, Stockholm

The collection of the first public modern art museum in Europe, Moderna Museet in Stocholm, was founded with the Museum of Our Wishes exhibition, in which 'ideal' works to initiate a national museum were exhibited, a fund aggregated, and most of the artworks were purchased. From composite, we can see that this exhibition was revisited in 2006 by then Director Lars Nittve, with the Museum of our Wishes II. In this version, to address the lack of women artists within the core collection, a wish-list was assembled and women's artworks bought.

The most recent iteration, is an ideal set of resources, a Museum of Their Wishes assembled by SA organic/synthetic composites.

2058. Consciousness is distributed. Abundance overwrites scarcity

Extended by and made from our technologies, the Multitude distributes desire of care, attention and contribution.

In the domain of political ontology, a disjointed, diffused, and collective consciousness is arrayed in multiple networks of production. There are simultaneous locations through which it is worked; concrete social assemblages of persons, institutions, technologies, geographies and signs, and mobilsed through relational regimes that fluctuate between legal and illegal, private or public. These intensities spiral out in different directions without the ability to pin down where these different destinies are present.


2060. Nanotech swarms mine off-world resources

Self Sustaining Resource Colony v1 (SSLC) near the Shackleton crater at the Lunar south pole is used as a launch site for SSLC v2.

2056. Multitude sponsored article: 39 Declaration of Human Rights. Full rights to be extended to organic-synthetic assemblies

The fundamental legal rights, which are currently the exclusive preserve of humans, are extended to nonhuman organic-synthetic assemblies. The Arnolfini sponsored Article 39 of the Universal Declaration of Human rights, which extends human rights to such assemblies, is aproved.

2061. Arnolfini Centenary

Throughout the Arnolfini, in all its intensities, there is celebration.